MICRB 265 (09/16/13) Structure and Function (con't)

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Microbiology (Biological Sciences)
Brian Lanoil

MICRB 265 (September 16, 2013) Structure and Function (con’t) Shapes: Vibrio – bent rod shape; like a comma  Vibrio cholera  diarrhea and intestinal disease Cocci – spheres  Arrangments: o Pairs = diplo- o Group of 4 = tetrad- o Clusters = staphylo o Chains = strepto Appendaged/budding  Caulobacter - has stalk to attached to water surface and flagella to move through water (changes cell shape) o Model system of a complex prokaryote  Filamentous – like strands of hair o Photosynthetic BUT does not produce O 2 o Ancient and therefore cannot compete well with algae  That’s why you only find filamentous cells in places where algae cannot grow! Morphogenesis Monomorphic – having only one form during whole span of lifetime  E. coli is an example Pleomorphic – multiple shapes available for cell to turn into  Caused by age progression  Caused by environmental stresses or cues EXAMPLE:  Arthrobacter sp.  during growth changes from RODS to COCCI (shape change makes it easier for it to attain food)  Bacillus cereus vegetative cells to spores (when environmental conditions are not favourable) Macromolecules in Prokaryotes  Proteins  Nucleic Acids (DNA and RNA)  Polysaccharides o Present in cell walls and in some storage granules  Lipids o Part of cytoplasmic membrane o Part of cell wall o Storage granules The Bacterial Membrane  Components: o Permeability barrier  Prevents leakage  Transport of nutrients o Protein anchor  Site of many transport proteins  Bioenergetics  Chemotaxis o Energy Conservation  Site of generation by way of proton motive force (PMF) Phospholipid Bilayer  Phosphate + Glycerol = hydrophillic  Fatty Acids = hydrophobic Differences In Membrane Chemistry  Ester-linked lipids o Exist in bacteria
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