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Feb 3 Ch 6 protein.doc

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University of Alberta
Sabina Valentine

Feb 3 – Ch6 Proteins 1. Describe how proteins differ from carbohydrates and fats 2. Identify plant food combinations that are complete protein sources 3. Discuss how proteins are digested and absorbed by our bodies 4. List four functions of proteins in our bodies 5. Calculate your recommended daily allowance for protein 6. Identify the potential health risks associated with high-protein diets 7. List four nutrients that may be limited in vegan diets 8. Describe two disorders related to inadequate protein intake or genetic abnormalities Proteins • Proteins are large complex molecules composed of amino acids • Contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen • Primary source of nitrogen in our diets • 20 different amino acids are used to make protein Amino Acids Essential amino acids • Cannot be produced by our bodies • Must be obtained from food Nonessential amino acids • Can be made by our bodies • Made by transferring amino groups (transamination) How Are Proteins Made? • Proteins are long chains of amino acids • Amino acids are joined to each other by peptide bonds • The structure of each protein is dictated by the DNA of a gene Transcription: use of the genetic information in DNA to make messenger RNA (mRNA) Translation: conversion of genetic info in mRNA to a chain of amino acids t form a protein Proteins in the Diet Incomplete protein: doesn’t contain all essential amino acids in sufficient amounts • Not sufficient for growth and health • Considered a “low quality” protein Complete protein: contains sufficient amounts of all 9 essential amino acids (considered a high quality protein) • Mutual supplementation: using 2 incomplete proteins together to make a complete protein • Complementary foods: protein sources (foods) that together supply all 9 essential amino acids (ex. Beans and rice) Digestion of Proteins Digestion of proteins begins in the stomach • Hydrochloric acid breaks down protein structure (denatures) • Hydrochloric acid activates pepsin Pepsin: an enzyme that breaks down proteins into short polypeptides and amino acids
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