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March 1 - minerals in the blood.doc

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Sabina Valentine

March 1 –Ch 10 – Nutrients in Energy Metabolism and Blood Health Vitamins and Metabolism Vitamins and Minerals • Are required for proper metabolism • Don't directly provide energy • Are necessary for obtaining energy from the macronutrients • Often function as coenzymes Enzyme: a protein that accelerates the rate of a chemical reaction. Enzymes are required for all metabolic reactions Coenzyme: a molecule that combines with an enzyme to facilitate enzyme function. Some metabolic reactions require coenzymes B-complex Vitamins • B-complex vitamins are expecially important for energy metabolism • B-complex vitamins (and their coenzymes) include: • Thiamin (TPP) • Riboflavin (FAD, FMN) • Niacin (NAD) • Vitamin B6 (PLP) • Folate (THF) • Vitamin B12 (B12) • Biotin (biotin) • Pantothenic acid (CoA) Thiamin (also called Vitamin B1) • Coenzyme thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP) required for carb metabolism • Coenzyme for the metabolism of some fatty acids • Enriched and whole grains are good sources • Beriberi – deficiency of thiamin resulting in muscle wasting and nerve damage Riboflavin (also called vitamin B2) • Coenzyme (FAD) involved in oxidation – reduction reactions • FAD works with the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidise • Milk is a good source of riboflavin • Ariboflavinosis – riboflavin deficiency; sore lips, swollen mucous membranes Niacin • Nicotinamide and nicotinic acid • Coenzyme assisting with metabolism of carbs and fatty acids • Good sources: meat, fish, poultry, enriched bread products • Toxicity can result from supplements • Pellagra – severe niacin deficiency leading to depression, diarrhea Vitamin B6 (also called pyridoxine) • Group of 6 related compounds • Coenzyme (PLP) for more than 100 enzymes; most in amino acid metabolism • Good sources: meat, fish, poultry, rice, starchy veggies • Toxicity from supplements can result in nerve damage, skin lesions Folate • Coenzyme (THF) involved in DNA synthesis, amino acid metabolism • Critical for cell division of very early embryos • Deficiency leads to macrocytic anemia and neural tube defects • Good sources: lentils, fortified grain products • Toxicity can mask vitamin B12 deficiency Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) • B12 coenzymes important for blood formation • Required for nerve functioning • Required for homocysteine breakdown • Found only in animal based foods • Deficiency results in anemia, low energy, fatigue, shortness of breath, and can lead to pernicious anemia Pantothenic Acid • Component of coenzyme (CoA) for fatty acid metabolism • Good sources: liver, yogurt, sunflower seeds, shiitake mushrooms • No toxicity from excess pantothenic acid • Deficiencies are very rare Biotin • Coenzyme involved in metabolism of carbs, fats, and proteins • Important for gluconeogensis • Biotin content has been determined for very few foods • Deficiency symptoms include hair thinning, loss of hair colour, red rash on face Choline Choline is an essential vitamin-like substance • Assists in homocysteine metabolism • Accelerates the synthesis of acetylcholine, a NT • Good sources of choline are: milk, liver, eggs, legumes, and peanuts • Deficiency can lead to fat accumulation in the liver • Toxicity can result from supplements Iodine Iodine is a trace mineral • Critical for the synthesis of thyroid hormones • Thyroid hormones regulate body temperature and resting metabolic rate • Good sources of iodine are: saltwater fish, shrimp, milk and dairy products • In Canada, table salt is iodized Excess Iodine • Blocks synthesis of thyroid hormones • Thyroid tries to make more hormones • Results in goiter – enlarged thyroid Iodine deficiency • Results in hyperthyroidism and goiter • Cretinism – mental retardation from iodine deficiency during embryonic development Chromium Chromium is a trace mineral • Assists insulin as it transports glucose from the blood into the cells • There is very little chromium in the body • Good sources of chromium is: mushrooms, prunes, dark chocolate, nuts, whole grains • Chromium deficiency inhibits glucose absorption by body cells Manganese Manganese is a trace mineral • Coenzyme involved in energy metabolim • Part of the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase • Good sources of manganese: whole grain foods, brown rice, pineapple, pine nuts, raspberries • Toxicity impairs the nervous system causing spasms and tremors Sulphur Sulphur is a major mineral • Component of thiamin and biotin • Required for detoxification of alcohol and drugs by the liver • Found in a few amino acids • Sufficient sulphur is synthesized from the protein in our diets Blood Blood is the only fluid tissue in the body
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