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Feb 27 bone health.doc

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Sabina Valentine

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Feb 27: Bone Health Ch 9 What if you don't get enough vitamin D? • Can also occur with diseases that reduce intestinal absorption of fat • Rickets – bending of soft bones in kids (common in some parts of the world) • Osteomalacia – weak, painful bones in adults • Canadians are more at risk for Vitamin D deficiency than previously thought Vitamin K • Vitamin K is a fat soluble vitamin stored in the liver • Phylloquinone is the plant form of vitamin K • Menaquinone is the form of vitamin K produced by bacteria in the large intestine Functions of vitamin K • Blood coagulation • Bone metabolism RDA for Vitamin K • There is no RDA for vitamin K • AI values are 120 miligrams per day for men and 90 miligrams per day for women Sources of vitamin K • Green leafy veggies, veggie oils What if you consume too much Vitamin K? • No known side effects from large quantities • Can interfere with anticoagulant meds What if you don't consume enough vitamin K? • Reduced blood clotting, excessive bleeding • Can occur with diseases that disturb absorption of fat in the small intestine Phosphorus • Phosphorus (as phosphate) is the primary intracellular negatively charged electrolyte Functions of Phosphorus • Critical to mineral composition of bone • Required for proper fluid balance • Component of ATP, DNA, membranes RDA for phosphorus • RDA for phosphorus is 700 mg/d Sources of Phosphorus • High in protein-containing foods such as milk, meat, and eggs • In processed foods as a food addictive • In coke as phosphoric acid What if you consume too much phosphorus? • Excessive vitamin D supplements can cause high plasma phosphorus levels, muscle spasms, and convulsions • The UL for adults ranges 3 to 4 grams per day What if you don't consume enough phosphorus? • Deficiencies are rare in healthy adults Magnesium 50-60% of the body’s magnesium is found in the bones Functions of magnesium • A mineral found in bone structure • Cofactor for over 300 enzyme systems • Required for the production of ATP, DNA, and proteins Magnesium RDI • RDA varies based on age and gender • 320 mg/day for women age 19-30 years old • 400 mg/day for men aged 19-30 years old Sources of magnesium • Green leafy veggies, whole grains, seeds, nuts, seafood, beans, some dairy products What if you consume too much magnesium? • No toxicity from magnesium in food • Magnesium supplements can cause diarrhea, nausea, cramps, dehydration; UL of 350 mg/day from supplements alone What if you don't consume enough magnesium? • Hypomagnesemia can result in low blood calcium and osteoporosis Fluoride Fluoride is a trace mineral • 99% of the body’s fluoride is stored in teeth and bones Functions of Fluoride • Development and ma
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