PHIL250 Lecture Notes - Lecture 25: Joule
2 pages92 viewsFall 2014
SchoolUniversity of Alberta
DepartmentPhilosophy at St Joseph's College
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Phronesis involves choice and deliberation; do not have by birth; is a matter of what
is advantageous to lead us to the right sort of thing, the end, to apply universal to
particular situations properly (through experience). Uni"es all virtues through
reason, active deliberation guided by attainment of virtue. Its an active condition
that resembles virtue; attached to nous, guided by/governed by nous which is part
of you (am intellectual capacity, the highest good). We don't have pj by birth, we
need to achieved it. It is concerned with the intellect in a broad sense. Person with
pj gathers virtues and makes themselves one.
Virtue is necessary for pj (we need to be good); it leads us to the right end, the goal,
complete human virtue. You need to be clever to get the right end. Virtue is a
matter of particulars so you need experience to learn to do the right sorts of things.
Natural virtues are not true virtues because they are not stable states of character.
In a way, it seems you need pj to get to virtue but no. All you have to do is look to
people who have pj and try to do what they do to develop virtues. Book 2: dragging
ourselves back to the mean, shows restraint, modelling ourselves on others [might
be problematic] through interaction with others we can determine what virtue is and
"nd someone who is virtuous
All virtues work together if pj is active.
Restraint/unrestraint simply: concerned with bodily pleasures such as that with
temperance, mostly things that involve touch and taste, no excess in seeing and
hearing; unrestrained people would feel shame
Best to worst:
Virtuous person would always desire the right things, in the right way...
Restrained person desires bad things or just too the wrong extent and they
know it so they pull back from that and choose what a virtuous person would
choose; in restraining themselves, they want more so they su1er pain; by
restraining for long enough time, you condition yourself to become virtuous
Unrestrained person either doesn't deliberate and is spirited so they pursue
the bad desires, or they do deliberate/not actively attending to knowledge but
become overpowered by passion (more problematic than spiritedness); they
know the best thing to choose is not what they choose but they choose the
wrong thing anyway
Animal-like state: corrupted nature due to disease, bad habits; have no
Vicious person purposely chooses what is bad; no longer has the source
(ultimate particular [you] or nous) is calculating, deceptive and will go out of
their way to get more for themselves, they can get what they want; are
incurable; worst people, really lost
The source that we should look to is the oneness that we can be. Requires
deliberation, practice, developing of virtues, modelling of others, pulling back from
wrong things. By copying others, you are not doing it right but once you are able to
intrinsically do it, when you take it into yourself, then you are.
Nous is the absolute "rst principle; its above knowing, we don't have knowledge of
Avoid: vice, animal-like state, unrestraint
Restraint is certain kind of mean, like virtue but not virtue because virtue is a stable
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