Chapter 9 Race and Ethnicity Continued

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Physical Education, Recreation and Leisure Studies
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Melanie Muise

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Chapter 9 Race and Ethnicity Defining Race • Race = a population of people who are believed to be naturally or biologically distinct from other populations • Race depends on a classification system though which meanings are given to physical traits Defining Ethnicity • Ethnicity = a particular cultural heritage that is used to identify a category of people • An ethnic population = a category of people regarded as socially distinct because they share a way of life, a collective history, and a sense of themselves as a people Minority Group Refers to a socially identified collection of people who: • Experience discrimination • Suffer social disadvantages because of discrimination • Possess a strong self-conciousness based their shared experiences of discriminatory treatment Visible Minority • Term used in Canada to refer to racial minority groups who are identifiably different, often by skin colour, from the majority group • Visible minority has a specific meaning as used by Stats Canada, and it terms of its use in Canadian censes data (ex. It doesn’t include First Nations) • Canada has been the subject of international criticism, including from the UN, for the use of this term Racial Ideology In History Racial classification systems were developed as white Europeans explored and colonized the globe and found that there were physical differences between people • These systems were used to justify colonization, conversion, and even slavery and genocide • According to these systems, white skin was the standard, and dark skin was associated with intellectual inferiority and slowed development Trouble With Race And Racial Ideology • Racial categories are social creations based on meanings given to selected physical traits • Race isn’t a valid biological concept: verified by data from human genome project • Racial classifications are fuzzy because they are based on continuous traits with arbitrary lines drawn to create categories • Racial classifications vary from culture to culture Drawing Colour Lines In Society • CONTINUOUS traits = skin colour, height, brain size, nose width, leg length, leg length ratio, number of fast twitch muscle fibers, etc. • Discrete traits = blood type, sickle cell trait, etc • Racial category can be drawn anywhere on a continuum ! we could draw 2 or 200 lines, our decisions are a social decisions, not decisions based on biology Race in Canada • Race is a primitive but powerful classification system that has been used around the world • Mixed race people challenge the validity of this socially influential way of defining race • Canadian views on “race” have been influenced by proximity to the US • Tiger woods disrupted the dominant race logic • I am CABLINASIAN” • CA = Caucasian • BL = Black • IN = Indian [native American] • ASIAN = Asian Racial Ideologies Tend To Support • Racism: attitudes, actions, and policies based on the belief that people in one racial category are inherently superior to people in one or more categories • Stereotypes: generalizations used to define and judge all indiv
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