Conditions for emergence and growth of commercial sports: a market economy. Large, densely populated cities: people who have time, money, transportation, and media access. Large amounts of capital: culture emphasizing consumption and material status symbols. Why have spectator sports become so popular in society today: the quest for excitement, emphasis on success ideology, widespread organized, competitive youth sports, widespread media coverage. Ideological outposts in action: branding sports: sport places have been branded, sport events have been branded, athletes have been branded, corporate branding is now accepted by many people as necessary, non- political, even natural . This means that there are struggles over: meaning, purpose, and organization of sports, who will participate and the conditions under which sport participation occurs, how sponsors will be sponsored, and what the reasons for sponsorship will be. Involves performance designed to entertain an audience for the purpose of obtaining rewards.