Chapter 11 Sports And The Economy

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Physical Education, Recreation and Leisure Studies
Melanie Muise

Chapter 11 Sports and the economy Conditions for emergence and Growth of Commercial Sports • A market economy • Large, densely populated cities • People who have time, money, transportation, and media access • Large amounts of capital • Culture emphasizing consumption and material status symbols Class Relations and Commercial Sports The preferences and priorities of people with power and wealth often influences which sports are commercialized – for example: • Golf is enjoyed by wealthy and powerful people; it receives a great deal of TV coverage despite low ratings • Hockey reproduces an ideology that privileges men and celebrate masculinity Why have Spectator Sports Become So Popular In Society Today? • The quest for excitement • Emphasis on success ideology • Widespread organized, competitive youth sports • Widespread media coverage Economic Motives and The Globalization Of Commercial Sports • Sport organizations look for global markets (FIFA, NHL, MLB seek global media exposure and expansion) • Corporations use sports as vehicles for global expansion (our goal is to make money; another goal is to sponsor enjoyment and pleasure in order to establish ideological outposts in the minds of people around the world) Ideological Outposts In Action: Branding Sports • Sport places have been branded • Sport events have been branded • Athletes have been branded • Corporate branding is now accepted by many people as necessary, non- political, even “natural” Sports are Contested Activities This means that there are struggles over: • Meaning, purpose, and organization of sports • Who will participate and the conditions under which sport participation occurs • How sponsors will be sponsored, and what the reasons for sponsorship will be Dramatic Spectacle • Involves performance designed to entertain an audience for the purpose of obtaining rewards Sport as Spectacle • Much more is at stake than material gain: the players and fans depend on sport as spectacle for esteem, honour, dignity, identity, and status Production and Consumption of Ideologies • Fans and players become inseperable actors in the same drama Changes in Structure and Goals Rule changes are made to make action more exciting, understandable, and profitable by: • Speeding up action • Increasing scores and scoring chances • Balan
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