PERLS207 Lecture Notes - Autonomic Dysreflexia, Lumbar Vertebrae, Cervical Vertebrae

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Published on 29 Nov 2011
School
University of Alberta
Department
Physical Education, Recreation and Leisure Studies
Course
PERLS207
Professor
Page:
of 2
Spinal Chord Injury
-Spinal Chord Injury: Any event, disease, or condition which causes either complete or
incomplete paralysis of left/and or right upper and/or lower extremities
~900 new injuries/year (lower in Canada than USA)
~78% injuries between ages 15-34
~80% new injuries in males
-Most caused by vehicle crashes
-Majority unemployed (~70%)
-Most live in private homes/residences
-Marital status not much different
-Spinal Chord:
7 Cervical vertebrae, 8 nerves
12 Thoracic vertebrae & nerves
5 Lumbar vertebrae & nerves
5 Sacral vertebrae & nerves
C4 Critical b/c it innervates diaphragm
Spinal Tracts:
-Voluntary Motion: Lateral corticospinal, Anterior corticospinal
-Touch & Pressure: Anterior Spinothalamic
-Pain & Temperature: Lateral Spinothalamic
-Vibration & Position: Posterior Columns
-Tetraplegia: Cervical lesion, affects sensory/motor function in all limbs, trunk, bladder,
bowel, sex organs, possible respiratory dysfunction
-Paraplegia: Thoracic or Lumbar lesion, trunk, lower limbs, bladder, bowel, sex organs
-Hemiplegia: Lesion affecting one side of spinal chord
Health Issues and Concerns with SCI
-Pressure sores, spasticity+contractures, autonomic dysreflexia, muscle atrophy,
obesity, cardiovascular disease, Type 2 diabetes, temp. control, heat/circulatory
regulation, urination/defecation, sexual function
-Pressure Sores: Start at skin (friction, moisture, pressure) move inwards or start deep
(pressure) move out
Prevention : Frequent postural changes, cushions/mattresses, Proper nutrition/skin
health, skin inspections
-Spasticity: Impaired reflex activity, exaggerated below level of injury, evoked by
stretch, pain, infection
-Contractures: Permanent shortening of muscle or tendon due to continual stress
Caused by spasticity, paralysis, disuse
Limits range of motion
-Autonomic Dysreflexia: Blood pressure rises drastically due to painful stimuli below
level of spinal cord lesion and impaired communication in autonomic nervous system
Individuals injuries at T6 or above
Sympathetic nervous system located at T6
Parasympathetic system in brain stem
Lead to stroke, detached retina, death
-Boosting: Purposeful induction of autonomic dysreflexia to enhance performance
-Paralysis: Muscle atrophy, weight management, bone health
Barriers to participation for people with SCI
Health concerns
Accessibility
Special terrain challenges
Money
Acceptance/tolerance
Confidence
Interest and motivation
Adapting Activities to promote Participation:
Specialized equipment
Integrated facilities and programs
Mentoring
Experimentation/thinking outside box

Document Summary

Spinal chord injury: any event, disease, or condition which causes either complete or incomplete paralysis of left/and or right upper and/or lower extremities. ~900 new injuries/year (lower in canada than usa) Spinal chord: 7 cervical vertebrae, 8 nerves, 12 thoracic vertebrae & nerves, 5 lumbar vertebrae & nerves, 5 sacral vertebrae & nerves, c4 critical b/c it innervates diaphragm. Tetraplegia: cervical lesion, affects sensory/motor function in all limbs, trunk, bladder, bowel, sex organs, possible respiratory dysfunction. Paraplegia: thoracic or lumbar lesion, trunk, lower limbs, bladder, bowel, sex organs. Hemiplegia: lesion affecting one side of spinal chord. Pressure sores, spasticity+contractures, autonomic dysreflexia, muscle atrophy, obesity, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, temp. control, heat/circulatory regulation, urination/defecation, sexual function. Pressure sores: start at skin (friction, moisture, pressure) move inwards or start deep (pressure) move out: prevention health, skin inspections. Spasticity: impaired reflex activity, exaggerated below level of injury, evoked by stretch, pain, infection.