March 4 – Masculinity and Dance
• 40 marks, 50 minutes
• Short answer and medium answer questions
• Some factual recall questions, some thinking questions. We will need to make
an arguement or explain how something works.
• Focus on the main ideas from the readings and lectures. Ex. How sport has
evolved with capitalism. Ex. If asked is sport connected with media
technology, we need to say yes or no and then explain.
• Some questions will have options/choice. We may need to explain one or the
• Don't need to be able to link authors name to articles.
• Take cues from PP slides. Don't need to know where direct quotes are from.
• Ex of a midterm question: Nauright, in the article on global games, argues
that globalization doesn’t have to erode local customs and culture. He
suggests we aren’t merely passive recipients of global sport games. How
does he argue that globalization can actually be resistive?
• We would have to know this article and what it deals with.
• If answering this question, we would say globalization has been argued that it
homogenizes culture and it is oppressive and gets rid of local culture or
history unqiue to that place. Nauhright says that isn’t necessarily the case.
He says the a lot of the time, web technologies allow people to register their
opinions on things and be actively engaged. When you put up a viral youtube
video, you get a lot of reach and media coverage. There is a potential for a
movement to start. In pre web technologies, it would be hard for people who
have an issue with a sporting event to voice their opinion. With globalization,
we have this expansion of technologies. We could start a blog, petition, or
video that would say things aren’t what they appear to be. This has come
about due to web 2.0 technologies.
• Make some notes on the reading and understand the details of the reading
• For this exam stay in the content of readings and lectures Sport and the Shifting Gender Order
Sport was the main venue for purging the mother dominated childhood from
the young adult male:
• boys became men through a sport that excised the influences of their
mothers. Ex. Mountain instructors would leave boys who refused to
climb down mountains. This would teach them to be independent. This
worked fine until deaths started happening.
• The body wasn’t the only thing being toughened up; the mind was also
Second wave feminism:
• 1960s – 1970s
• De factor inequities (unofficial, structural barriers). Women have
official equality and could get any job. There were unofficial inequities
such as less pay for similar jobs men did.
• Glass ceiling, reproductive and sexual freedom and choice – the birth
pill came about. This had an effect of changing the personal landscape.
• Personal is political – ex. Yes im your wife but you cant access my body
whenever you want
Sport and the shifting gender order
• Sport participated in and fuelled these changes
• Male sport figures were depicted as bad boys to fit alongside sexualized
images of women as young, available, interested, and promiscuous
• The hypermasculinity of sport produce men for whom intimacy and closeness
• Real men didn't cry and also didn't date other men
• By distancing themselves from the dominant women in their childhood, these
men had difficulties forming intimate relationships with women later in life • Female athletes are more sexualized than men. But men are starting to be
sexualized as well
• By the 90s, changes had produced overworked individuals, increased
pressures on women to be employed and also tend the home
• Men don't really do the same amount of housework women do
• Women will probably have a career but will also have housework to do
By the 1990s changes had produced on overworked individuals, incr