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Sept 11 - growth and human development.doc

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University of Alberta
Physical Education and Sport
Jody Virr

Sept 11 - Growth and Motor Development Objectives • Define motor development • Distinguish development issues from others • Describe basic tools used in motor development research • Development over a life span • Introduce Newell’s model of constraints Characteristics of Motor Development • Involves change in movement behaviour (movement abilities) • Is sequential, age-related, continuous age related process where movement changes • Motor development is continually occurring but it is most evident at some stages • Children move through stages of development of motor development • You cannot tie a specific age to a specific action • As age advances, so does our development • For each skill, there are certain stages to progress from. once they gain that skill, they are not regressing • Depends on underlying processes (processes of change and movement outcome) • Not all change in movement denotes development Related Areas of Study • Motor Learning: Relatively permanent gains in motor skill capability associated with practice or experience (ex. A coach working with a pitcher and teaches him to change his grip on the ball and his fastball increases in velocity. The pitcher already knew how to pitch, but he is now changing his technique) Motor control: • The neural, physical, and behavioural aspects of movement • Known as the brain to body connection, thought processing to the actual doing of an action • Nervous systems control of the muscles to permit skilled and coordinated movements Motor Behaviour o A term that encompasses both motor development and motor learning o When not sure if its motor development or motor learning, we call it motor behaviour Related Terms Physical growth: • Quantitative increase in size or body mass (Timiras, 1972) Maturation • The state of optimal functional integration of an individual’s body systems and the ability to reproduce. • Development continues long after physical maturity is reached • Ex of maturation is development of sweat glands Physical Maturation: • Qualitative advance in biological makeup; cell, organ, or system advancement in biomechanical composition (Teeple, 1978) Aging: • Process occurring with passage of time, leading to loss of adaptability or full function and eventually to death (Spirduso, 1995) Defining Motor Development • Identify similarities and differences between motor development and the following phenomena. o Motor learning – making adaptations to a technique that is already known. Ex. Changing body position in the air to make a spike in volleyball o Motor control – the brain and neural connection Ex. Recruiting more
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