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PEDS207 (22)
Jody Virr (22)
Lecture

Sept 20 -Chapt 4 - Physical Growth and Aging.doc

7 Pages
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Department
Physical Education and Sport
Course Code
PEDS207
Professor
Jody Virr

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Description
Chapt 4 – Physical Growth, Maturation, and Aging Lab activity 1.1 3,8,4,5,7,1,2,6 Rank from most advanced to least advanced Overview • Body growth and aging • Role of genes • Influence of extrinsic factors • Identify typical patterns of growth • Distinguish between growth and maturation Growth and Aging Change Individual Constraints • Genetic and extrinsic factors combine to influence growth and aging • We observe patterns in growth and aging • Universality: patterns that hold for all humans • Specificity: individual variation • Educators and therapists can make tasks developmentally appropriate Prenatal Development • Early development is controlled by genes • Normal development • inherited abnormal development • the embryo or fetus is sensitive to extrinsic factors • these extrinsic factors can have positive effect or negative effect • abnormal pressure, drugs, viruses, can harm the baby Embryonic Development • conception to 8 weeks • differentiation of cells to form specific tissue and organs • limbs formed at 4 weeks • human form noticeable at 8 weeks Implantation Fetal Development • 8 weeks to birth • Continued growth by hyperplasia (cell number) and hypertrophy (cell size) • Cephalocaudal (head to toe) and proximodistal (near to far) • Plasticity (capability of taking on a new function). The cells have the ability to develop in one direction but can change their direction of development very quickly • At birth, the bodily system should be working independently • If the baby is born early, lots of time, the baby will have lung deficiency, jaundice (liver problems) Fetal Nourishment • Oxygen and nutrients diffuse between fetal and maternal blood in placenta • Poor maternal health status can affect fetus • The lower of a socioeconomic status you are, the higer chances you have of having an underweight baby who dies in the first few weeks of birth Genetic Causes of Abnormal Development • Can be dominant disorders (defective gene from one parent) or recessive disorders (defective gene from each parent) • Can result from mutation of a gene • Effects on growth and maturation are variable • Children with down syndrome will have enlarged thumbs • They will be shorter than usual • They will have a cognitive impairment and they will only reach the mental age of 8 years old What are some genetic disabilities? What effects does each have on normal growth and development? Extrinsic Causes of Abnormal Development • Extrinsic factors can affect fetus through nourishment or physical environment • teratogens delivered through nourishment system act as malformation- producing agents • Some teratogenic effects result from too much of a substance, some from too little • Placenta screens some substances (ex. Large viruses) but not all harmful ones • Harmful environmental factors include pressure, temperature, X and gamma rays, oxygen-deficient atmospheres, pollutants • Tissues undergoing rapid development at time of exposure are most vulnerable • We cannot say a certain teratogen is responsible for a specific change or defect in a fet
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