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Sept 25 - Development and Aging.doc

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Physical Education and Sport
Jody Virr

Sept 25 – Chapter 5: Development and Aging Of Body Systems Overview • Developmental changes in the skeletal, muscular, adipose, endocrine, and nervous systems • Interaction of the systems • Periods of change and external factors • As we age, genetic factors decrease and external factors increase • Rate limiter – anything holding back the development of motor actions Body Systems (individual structural constraints) • Body systems are influenced by extrinsic factors Its important to know • The average pattern of change within each system • The range of individual variations for a system Skeletal System Prenatal growth • The embryo has a cartilage model of the skeleton • Ossification begins at primary centers in the midportions of long bones • In the womb there are 400 ossification centers (places where the bone is laid down and begins to be developed) Postnatal Growth in the Skeletal System • Growth in bone length occurs at secondary centers at the ends of bones • These centers are called epiphyseal plates, growth plates, or pressure epiphyses • Increase in bone grit is called appositional growth • Traction epiphyses are where muscle tendons attach to bones • As the muscle gets stronger, the bones gets stronger • Appositional growth makes the bone get thicker and stronger. Any weight bearing activities will cause our bones to get thicker and stronger • Bones will remain Narrow on the shaft • X rays enable us to get a skeletal age • A hand that is less developed will have smaller bones and have more spaces between the bones • Left – 4 year old boy, 3 year old girl • Right – 11 year old girl, • Girls will have greater development of their bones than men at the same age • We can use this info to determine what our bodies can handle • Diet, activity, bone diseases, and bone breaking can influence our bone growth and development • If you crush a growth plate, your bone growth and length will be influenced. If you crush it as you are entering a cruciacl growth phase, your height and growth may be less than usual. Assessment of Skeletal Age • Individuals hand-wrist x-ray is compared with standards for chronological age • Then matched with picture for ossification at ends of long bones and in short round bones • If X ray taken at a given chronological age matches the standard for an older age, then individual is an early maturer. If someones bone age is actually younger than their actual age, they are a late maturer Cessation of Bone Growth • Growth at the epiphyseal plates stops at different times for different bones • All typically close by age 18 or 19 • Closure occurs at a younger age in girls. Skeletal System In Adults • Bones undergoes remodelling throughout the life span • Old bone is absorbed, new bone formed • In adulthood, bone growth slows, fails to keep pace with reabsorption • Bone becomes more brittle • As we age, there is a shift in the composition of bone • As we age there Is more inorganic composition of the bone. There is a stiff structure. Skeletal Structure in Adulthood • Structure itself changes little unless one has osteoporosis • Osteoporosis leads to rib cage collapse, stooped posture, and reduced height • Extent of bone loss is influenced by hormone levels, diet, and exercise • If the rest of our body doesn’t have enough calcium or minerals, it will be pulled out of the bones to meet those requirements • Calcium, vitamins and minerals are the building blocks for bones • Osteoporosis involves holes in the bones and weak bones. There is loss of bone density and shift to inorganic compounds in bone. Muscular System • Prenatal growth involves hyperplasia (increase in number of cells) and hypertrophy (increases in size of cells) • Postnatal growth mainly involves hypertrophy
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