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Oct 16 - locomotion part 2.doc

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University of Alberta
Physical Education and Sport
Jody Virr

Oct 16 – Locomotion Part 2 Early Running Arms are at side Toeing out occurs Flat foot context Short stride Strength and balance are the rate limiters for early walking • arms are in high guard, limited ROM, short stride length, little rotation Proficient Running Decreased extraneous movement Alignment of forces Using oppositional arm movement Stride length increases Increased ROM and use of the knees and hips Other Locomotor Skills: Jumping and Jump-Like Activities • Jump: individual propels self off ground with one or two feet, lands on two feet • Hop: most difficult due to balance and coordination. Individual propels self off ground with one foot, lands on same foot • Leap: individual propels self off ground with one foot, extends flight period, lands on opposite foot Jumping • Children often begin simple jumping before age 2 • Individuals can perform either vertical or horizontal (standing long) jump • Generic difference in height may influence the technique • Early jumpers have a hard time coordinating limbs for jumping. Early characteristics of jumping include: • One-foot takeoff or landing • Only jumping vertically • No or limited prepatory movements Proficient Jumping • Prepatory crouch maximizes takeoff force • For vertical jump, force is directed downward; body is extended • For horizontal jump, force is directed down and backward; knees are flexed during flight • Both feet leave ground at same time • Arm swing utilized during jump Jumping Horizontal and vertical jumping are most often studied in children Phases • prepatory phase • takeoff phase • flight phase • Landing phase Jumping~Horizontal Prepatory phase • Missing in inexperienced jumpers • Crouch (flexion at hips, knees, ankles) • Backward swing of the arms Takeoff and Flight phases • Rapid and vigorous extension of the hips, knees, and ankles • Vigorous swing of the arms in the direction of desired travel • Provides the impetus for the body to become airborne • We see full extension and a 45 degree angle of takeoff • Experienced jumpers: There is no forward lean before they take Landing Phase • Stiff-legged landings can result in serious landing • Landing phase: The advanced jumped absorbs the landing forces by flexing the knees, hips, and ankles at impact • When we land, we land with our ankles, knees hips sequentially to reduce the impact force Jumping~Horizontal Takeoff and flight phases in the inexperienced jumper • Little of no crouch (little if any extension of body segments) • Arm aren’t integrated with the lower extremities to increase the momentum • For maximum distance, takeoff angle should be 45 degrees Stage 1 • Coordination issue • Mistimed landing • Primarily a vertical force • We need our feet to be landing in front of our COG, there not enough full extension out front of the body to get farther • No prep phase Stage 2 • Use of arms • Arms are staring to be used for coordination • Angle of takeoff isn’t 45 degrees, but is better than stage 1 Stage 3: • take off angle improves • Prepatory stage is visible Stage 4 • COG is much farther forward • Momentum keeps us from falling over when we land • We return our COG to the center of the body after we jump Jumping ~ Vertical • 248 boys and 232 girls aged 7-11 performed 4 vertical jumps with a countermovement and 4 jumps without one Contrary to adult populations • Children performed better without the countermovement • Pre-stretch adds force to the jump Initial stage • Poor body extension on takeoff • Inconsistent prepatory crouch • Difficulty in taking off with both feet • Little or no head lift – not looking where you are going. Jumper will be focused down when they take off • Little height achieved • Arms not coordinated with the trunk and leg action Elementary Stage • 2-footed takeoff • Knee flexion exceeding 90 degrees on prepatory crouch • Exaggerated forward lean during crouch • Entire body not fully extended during flight phase • Noticeable horizontal displacement on landing Mature Stage of jumping vertically • Full body extension • Prepatory crouch with knee flexion from 60-90 degrees • Forceful extension at hips, knees, and ankles • Simultaneous coordinated upward arm lift • Upward head tilt with eyes focused on target • Strength is important for propelling the jump • It takes a lot of strength of absorb the jump forces • We need to stay balanced on our feet • Coordination is also important because we need to use all limbs to produce force in the same direction • Practice will affect how some progress in jumping activities • Its socio-culturally accepted for women to skip; therefore we see women are
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