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Oct 18 - Ballistic Skills.doc

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Physical Education and Sport
Jody Virr

Oct 18 – Ballistic Skills Ballistic Skills • Performer applies force to an object in order to project it Overarm Throwing Many forms: • Underhand (one or two hand) • Sidearm • Overarm (one or two hand) Type that is used is often dependent on task constraints • Size of ball • rules if kids use a ball that is too big for them, they will use a 2 hand throw. Ex of 2 hand overarm throw: basketball pass, soccer throw in, rugby Most common in sport: one-hand overarm Gauging Throwing Skill • Product measures (outcome): accuracy, distance, ball velocity – looking at end result. With accuracy, its hard to compare that across ages because a task that is difficult for a young kid can be easy for a older person. In measuring distance, we aren’t taking into account the size and strength of the children. • Process measures (movement pattern): developmental sequences. We are examining motions specifically and we can help them progress through these stages A beginner thrower Very flat trunk. No step into the throw .we just use elbow flexion Early Overarm Throwing • Mostly arm action • Elbow pointed up or directly forward • Throw executed by elbow extension alone • Trunk flexion vs. Rotation • We may see the child actually bow when throwing • The throw may just go straight into the ground Proficient Throwing • Windup • The leg opposite the throwing arm steps forward • The trunk rotates forward • The trunk bends laterally • The upper arms forms a right angle with the trunk • We are able to control objects flight and align forces and target the forces in a specific direction Elbow at a right angle: 90 degree angle. The forearm lag: distinguishes intermediate throwers from proficient throwers. This involves the open kinetic chain and transfer of momentum. Our joints move sequentially so that our arm is the last thing to come through. Follow-through: important to prevent injury. We are slowing down the forces over a longer distance. Follow through allows us to have max speed when releasing and we are able to dissipate those forces when we release. • The thrower carries out the movements of the body segments sequentially • Generally the sequence is as follows: 1.) Forward step and pelvic rotation 2.) Upper spine rotation and upper arm swing 3.) Upper arm inward rotation and elbow extension 4.) release 5.) follow-through Developmental Changes in Overarm Throwing Trunk Action 1.) None or forward-backward movement 2.) Block rotation – leaning away from throwing arm. Hips and shoulders move as a block 3.) Differentiated rotation – rotation of hips then shoulders Backswing 1.) None 2.) Shoulder flexion 3.) Upward backswing 4.) Downward, circular backswing – looking for the hand to go below the waist. Foot Action 1.) No step 2.) Homolateral step 3.) Short contralateral step 4.) Long contralateral step – the increased distance helps us generate a force over a longer period. Upper arm action 1.) Oblique – humerus is at an oblique angle. 2.) aligned but independent 3.) lagging – shoulder come throught first, then everything follows Forearm action 1.) No lag 2.) Lag 3.) Delayed lag Not everyone reaches level 4 proficiency. Someone can have a stage 3 upper arm action and a stage 4 lower body motion. Men generally have better throwing than women. Throwing in Adulthood • Moderately advanced steps – most individuals fall in stage 1 or 2. We don't know if seniors have ever reached the proficient level • Ball velocities are moderate – release velocity is slower • Musculoskeletal constraints • Change is slow, involves decline in performance • Typically related to control rather than coordination • We see a decrease in ROM and pain in the movement of throwing. Pattern may be altered. • When throwing for accuracy vs distance, throwers will use a lower stage of development. There is less room for error this way because we are taking out joints in the link for movement. • Ex. Darts: don't need much strength, highly tuned accuracy. Only hand is moving. Kicking • Like throwing, kicking projects an object • Unlike throwing, the kicker strikes the object • In kicking we are striking an object; in throwing we are projecting an object • Kicking is used in skills such as tennis serves and volleyball serves • Sufficient perceptu
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