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Oct 25 - Sensory Perceptual Development (2).doc

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Physical Education and Sport
Jody Virr

Nov 1 – Sensory – Perceptual Development Kinesthetic Development: Sensation 2 types of proprioceptors are: • Somatosensors – tells us about hot and cold and pressure. Located under the skin. There are somatosensors in our tendons and muscles, they tell us if a muscles is contracting or extending. • Vestibular apparatus – located in our ears. We have 2 of them. We have 3 semicircular canals in our ears. They give us info about how our body is moving and helps us detect rotational acceleration in 3 separate planes. Our anterior canal has to do with movement when nodding yes. When doing a somersault, our anterior canal will give us information saying we are doing a somersault. Our posterior canal will tell us the speed we are moving at when moving head from shoulder to shoulder. The lateral canal is used when you turn your head in a no movement. When you stop spinning, fluid in the ear moves in the opposite direction, making you feel like you are still spinning. Proprioceptors tell us relative position of body parts, our orientation in space, our general body movements, and the nature of the objects our body comes in contact with Kinesthesis in Infancy • Newborns respond to touch and can locate touches to the face (rooting reflex) • At a young age, they try to match the sensation that has touched tem • Vestibular apparatus functions by 2 months, if not earlier • Ex. Labarynthine reflex – keeping head vertical and upright when you tilt the infant. • When looking at development of kinesthetic development, it starts cephalocaudal and distant Kinesthetic Perception Involves perception of these elements Single vs. Multiple touch points Tactile localization: the ability to identify without sight the exact spot on the body that has been touched Objects – tactile recognition: being able to touch an object and feel what it looks like. Tactile memory and speed of recognition increases as we age. Body awareness – feeling their location and limb movement in space. To demonstrate body awareness, we need to be able to distinguish between body parts. We need to describe the spatial dimensions (what’s beside, what’s behind) Body awareness comes around age 3. Children understand left and right fully at 10. Lateral dominance (handedness) is developed around age 4. Another way to establish body awareness, we have to be able to produce limb movement and bring the limb back to the position. We also have to have spatial awareness (being able to walk in a straight line blindfolded). We have to be able to describe limb position or object position in relation to our bodies. This can be hard for young kids (ex. Mirror) Spatial orientation of the body in the environment (independent of vision) All of our senses have thresholds. As we age, our thresholds get lower meaning that we can discriminate between where we got touched and what touched us. Depending on where we get touched on the body, there are different thresholds. Face and limbs are the most sensitive Handedness can influence motor development because we will want to use our dominant side of the body more than the other. Kinesthetic Changes with Aging • Accuracy in judging muscle tension is retained. They can tell muscle tension better than limb position • Some sensitivity may be lost • Some older adults show impairments in judging passive leg movements • As we age, we have a harder time feeling pain and pressure. If we cant feel as well, that means the quality of info you are getting from your senses isn’t as good. In the elderly, they usually have more skin injuries because they aren’t getting quality information back from their systems. • More research is needed Auditory Development: Sensation 3 structures are involved in hearing 1.) External ear 2.) Middle ear 3.) Cochlea of the inner ear Audition in Infancy • Rapid improvement is seen in the 1 week, due to inner ear fluid drying up • Infants threshold for sound is higher than adults but allows detection of normal speaking voice • At 3 months, infants hear low-frequency sounds well, high frequency not as well • In their first few days, infants cants detect whispers • By 6 months, they have close to adult level hearing. Studies have shown that infants can discriminate between tone and pitch and attend to mothers voice over others. Auditory Changes with Aging Hearing loss (presbycusis) is more frequent in older adults • Physiological • Lifelong exposure to environmental noise • Absolute and differential thresholds generally increase. We need a larger stimulus to tell us that a noise happened. Our differential threshold helps us distinguish different sounds. • Hearing amid a noise background is more difficult. Adults have a harder time having a convo with music in the background Auditory Perception Involves perception of • Location • Patterns • Differences in similar sounds • Auditory figure and ground Even though we
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