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PEDS207 (22)
Jody Virr (22)

Oct 11 - Early Motor Development part 2.doc

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University of Alberta
Physical Education and Sport
Jody Virr

Oct 11 – Early Motor Development part 2 Motor Milestones Fundamental motor skills • Building blocks (leading to complex motor skills) • Cumulative, sequential • Specific movements that lead to general actions • You have to have the strength before a full movement can emerge • Infants have motor milestones and progress in the same milestones in the same order • Motor milestone: a fundamental motor skill that its attainment is associated with a full voluntary movement • Development of balance, CNS, and sensory processing Locomotor and Posture Motor Milestones • 2 months: lifts head in prone position • 3 months: lifts shoulders (turns head). • 5 months: rolls over, sits unsupported • 7 months: gets on hands and knees • 8 months: creeps on hands and knees • 9 months: pulls to stand; cruises furniture • 10 months: stands alone • 12 months: walks alone Crawling is similar to the army crawl – moving forward on all 4’s but your tummy is on the ground Creeping is where your stomach is off the ground and you ar emoving forward on all 4’s At 10 months, baby is able to stand alone and can walk with someone Improvements in nutrition, innovation in toys, and practice can help child learn to walk. These changes haven’t influenced how early a child can learn to walk We can still use the BS scale Note: the sequential nature helps us see if there are any neurological problems. If the child isn’t reaching these motor milestones and are fairly delayed, seek professional help Constraints and Motor Milestones • Constraints are modulators/rate limiters • Individual: strength, coordination of all systems (CNS development) • Environmental: first child syndrome • Previous milestones: reaching reflex during sitting vs. Crawling. Sometimes certain milestones, cause a regression in other skills. Ex. When we walk, we will regress to 2 hand reaching and then 1 hand reaching. It has to do with balance. We are adjusting to individual constraints. Movements The following progression of skills leads to creeping and crawling: • Crawling with the chest and stomach on the floor • Low creeping with the stomach off the floor but the legs working together (symmetrically) • Rocking back and forth in the high creep position – this helps train the muscles for future activity • Creeping with the legs and arms working alternately Prewalking movements • Crawling – moving with hands and stomach – combat crawl • Creeping – moving on hands and knees • Locomoting with hands held Phases of the Walking Cycle swing phase • Begins when foot of one leg leaves support surface • Ends when foot touches surface support phase • Time when balance is maintained on one foot • Right foot in swing phase while left foot is in support phase
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