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Nov 20 - Psychosocial Constraints.doc

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University of Alberta
Physical Education and Sport
Jody Virr

Nov 20 – Psychosocial Constraints Causal Attributions An individual with high self esteem makes the following causal attributions: • Internal – the person believe they have control and can influence outcomes, success or failure. It has to do with talent in success or lack of ability in failure • Stable – they believe that the factors influence outcomes are constant from situation to situation. So they wouldn’t say a win or loss is due to luck. • Controllable – the person believe that they control their success. People with high self esteem will act in a way that shows you that they believe they have a high level of self esteem. If they don't believe they wont make the free throw shot, that will translate to them not making that shot. An individual with low self esteem makes the following causal attributions: • External – they would say stuff like the other team had better players, the other team had a better side. None of these statements have to do with their own personal ability • Unstable – these people would say that they won or lost due to luck. • Uncontrollable – these people don't believe that their personal performance has any influence on the outcome. Children’s Attributions • Children with high self-esteem give internal, stable, controllable reasons for outcomes • Children with low self-esteem tend to make inaccurate attributions about outcomes and exhibit the following behaviours: o Unwillingness to try challenging tasks o Lack of effort to do well – will try to avoid participation if they can. o Avoidance of participation Adults Attributions Adults evaluate themselves in these ways: • Observing past and present accomplishments and failures (vicarious learning) • Comparing themselves with others • Receiving verbal persuasion from others • Observing their physiological state or fitness level Someones self esteem can increase or decrease through time. This can change based on motivation or on our physiological aging. When our strength starts to decrease, we can tell when its happening and it can lead to us not participating in the high level of sport. People with high self esteem will benefit from weight loss programs. If you believe in yourself, you will get more improvements through a weight loss program. If we don't have motivation we wont persist in sports and go outside of our comfort zones. Children’s Reasons for Persistence Desire to • Be competent by improving skills or attaining goals, • Affiliate with or make new friends, • Be part of a team • Undertake competition and be successful, • Have fun, and • Improve fitness • They may participate to make friends and family happy • Encouragement from family and friends • Stress relief The number 1 reason for participating is fun. The number 2 reason for participation is liking the coac
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