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Nov 22 - knowledge continued.doc

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Physical Education and Sport
Jody Virr

Nov 22 – Knowledge continued • Knowledge is an individual functional constraint • A knowledge base has to do with the size of info we have on a particular subject. Some topics we will have large knowledge bases, some topics we will have small knowledge bases • The more knowledge we have, the better our performance is • Due to having more knowledge in our brain, we don't have to store it in our STM • The three types • Declarative knowledge – facts. This is the first step of gaining knowledge • Procedural – the “how to” • Strategic – applying our knowledge across topics. General rules, guidelines, and strategies • Experts can see patterns • Experts pre plan and have a specific response for an action by the opponent • Experts will have spent many years in their sport to become experienced Development of Knowledge Base • When children gain knowledge they first gain: Declarative  Procedural  Strategic knowledge • They need to know the objective of the game. Once they understand this, they can progress to gaining procedural knowledge. • French and Thomas (1987) – they looked at children in basketball. Those kids with the larger knowledge base were the ones who made better on court decisions. They said that knowledge led to better decisions. • French et al. (1996) – looked at kids in baseball. He compared children who had never played baseball, those who had played a few years, and those who never played baseball. He put all 3 groups into baseball. All of the groups gained knowledge bases in baseball. French said that problem solving was related to knowledge rather than age. The more experience a player has, the larger knowledge base they have. • Nevett and French (1997) – they looked at shortstops. Those with a larger knowledge base were the ones who were more skilled. said the use of procedural knowledge was evident by adolescence • McPherson (1999) – looked at 18-22 year old female tennis players. He found that regardless of age, there were young experts who were better than the adults. He said adult novices had fewer tactical concepts than did youth experts • When players advance in procedural knowledge, their actions are dependent on who or what is happening • Players are able to use their information to cues in the environment • As we gain experience, we can apply the knowledge that we have Knowledge Test Results • French and Thomas looked at expert and novice boys. Experience factor is huge when developing knowledge base. Knowledge Bases Gender Differences • Boys will generally have larger knowledge bases due to Sociocultural constraints (ex. It may be expected of boys to play sports so they will have a larger knowledge base) • Your socioeconomic status may influence your knowledge base as well. (ex. Riverbenders have access to the terwillegar rec center) Older Adulthood • Expert knowledge might offset some loss of physical ability • Learning about an activity can improve older adults performances • Langley and knight study provides as example of this. They studied a 58 year old tennis player. They analyzed his performance. They said experience players perceived the environment and based their actions on affordances of the environment. They realized what they can or can’t do. Memory in Adulthood • Adults, too, remember more when they
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