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Jan 23 preventing injuries through fitness training.doc

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Physical Education and Sport
Brad Kern

Jan 23: Chap 4 –Preventing Injuries Through Fitness Training • Teams usually judge the work of strength and conditioning coaches by man games lost • Fitness is critical for performance • Each sport has different optimal levels of flexibility • If you are too flexible, you can also injure yourself • Improper conditioning is a major cause in sports related injuries • If your shoulder is too flexible and you play a contact sport, you are more susceptible to disolocating your shoulder • Exercise related injuries can be reduced (improved fitness = more resistant to fatigue and stress) • When athletes feel fatigued, that is when they are most likely to injure themselves Areas of Concern: • Flexibility • Muscular strength, endurance, power • Cardiorespiratory endurance Conditioning Seasons and Periodization • Traditional seasons no longer exist for serious athletes • Periodization puts training into cycles. it includes achieving peak performance, decreases injuries and overtraining, program that spans various seasons, and modify program relative to athletes needs. • We want to maintain off season muscle and weight gains through the season • Off season starts the day after your last game of the season • We need to modify the program relative to athletes needs • If we were working with an Olympian who competes every 4 years as compared to a NHL player, their periodization would be different Year Round Training Cycle • Complete training cycle • Seasonal approach based on preseason, in-season, and off-season • Changes in intensity, volume, specificity of training occur in order to achieve peak levels of fitness for competition • Year round training cycle is broken into periods or phases (lasting weeks or months) • We need to build muscle before we can strengthen it and make it more powerful • Each period or phase has a different goal Periods or Phases Transition period: • Follows last competition (early off season) • Unstructured (escape rigors of training) • In this period, we want the athlete to just do nothing so they can recuperate physically and mentally. • The transition period should last a few weeks up to a month. After 3-4 weeks of doing nothing, the athletes usually come back to the coaches and want to get back to training Prepatory Period • Covers the whole off season • There are 3 phases in the prepatory phase 1.) Hypertrophy/ endurance phase (low intensity with high volume) allows for development of endurance base. Last several weeks to 2 months. In this phase we can incorporate aerobic and anaerobic training to help condition the athletes. 2.) Strength phase 3.) Power phase (high intensity/pre season) 4.) Endurance phase Strength Phase • Intensity and volume increase to moderate levels • This phase is usually 75-90% rep max. • You are doing heavier weights and around 2-6 reps • If you were a boxer, you would want to do closer to 6 reps because you are repeatedly using your arms for punching • The athlete also needs to lift the weight with full ROM and not be worried about explosiveness now. • They should lift slowly Power Phase (high intensity/pre season) • In this phase, the reps have to be faster and more explosive • Volume is decreased to allow adequate recovery Competition period • Intensity is going to be very high, volume will be low • Competition period has high intensity, low volume, skill training ses
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