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Jan 30 - preventing injuries through fitness training.doc

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University of Alberta
Physical Education and Sport
Brad Kern

Jan 29 – Chap 4 Preventing Injuries Through Fitness Training Isometric exercise • Contraction where muscle length remains unchanged • Muscle contraction that lasts 10 seconds and should be performed 5-10 times/daily • Pros of isometric exercise: quick, effective, cheap, good for rehab • Cons of isometric exercise: only works at one point in ROM, produces spiking of BP due to valsalva maneuver Progressive Resistance Exercises (isotonic training) • Shortening/lengthening contractions against fixed resistance • Concentric vs. Eccentric – the same muscles as involved in concentric and eccentric exercises. Concentric is an active contraction and shortening of muscle. • Various types of equipment can be utilized (free weights, machine weight). free weights is good for reducing injury. Machine training eliminates the stability needed for a free weight exercise. • Spotter is necessary for free weight training to prevent injury, motivate partner and instruct on technique • Concentric and eccentric training should be incorporated for greatest strength improvement • Concentric phase of lift should last 1-2 seconds, eccentric phase 2-4 seconds • You should inhale at the top of the lift (eccentric phase). When you lift, there is a lot of thoracic pressure • Breathe out in the concentric phase • Machines are safer than free weight and its easy to adjust the weight. athletes should use free weights to help improve joint stability and reduce risk of injury • Free weights require neuromuscular control • Variations exist between free and machine weight lifting • Motion restrictions, levels of muscular control required, amount of weight that can be lifted • Equipment design, varying resistances • You should do full ROM training Progressive Resistance Exercise Techniques Terminology associated with weight training • Repetitions – certain amount of times you can perform in 1 set (20 push ups in 1 set) • Repetition maximum – the most weight you can lift for a defined number of exercise movements • One repetition maximum - maximum amount of weight one can lift in a single repetition for a given exercise • Set - standard way to refer to the number of exercises prescribed in a weight training program or workout • Intensity – refers to weight. less weight = less intense. More weight = more intense. Treadmill = high speed means more intense • Recovery period – the amount of time left for rest • Frequency – how many times per week you train • When training, you should be able to perform 3 sets of 6-8 reps • Increases should occur in increments of 10% • 1 RM can be utilized to measure maximum amount of weight that can be lifted – must be very careful • Training of a particular muscle group should occur 3-4 times per week (not on successive days). Muscular Endurance vs. Strength • Training for endurance enhances strength and vice versa • Training for strength should involve lower reps at heavier weight • Training for endurance requires lower weight at 12-15 reps If asked if training for hypertrophy on test, follow this chart Int Int Reps Sets Rest Strength • 85% < 6 2-6 2-5 min Power 75-90% 2-5 3-5 2-5 min Hypertrophy 67-85% 6-12 3-6 30-90 s Endurance < 67% • 12 2-3 < 30 Strengthening exercises Bench Press Shoulder Rotation Sports that deal with upper body movement and throwing sports should be trained with shoulder rotation exercises and bands as well as stability exercises • When spotting dumbbells, grab the wrist Open vs. Closed Kinetic Chain Exercises • Anatomical functional relationship for upper and lower extremities OKC • When foot or hand aren’t in contact with the ground or supporting surface (ex. When doing pushups and hands are in contact with the ground that is a CKC) an OKC requires more stabilizing muscles. During rehab, you should start with a CKC due it not requiring so many stabilizing muscles. Wit athletes, we should use OKC to reduce likelihood of injury CKC
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