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Jan 28 - preventing injuries through fitness training.doc

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Physical Education and Sport
Brad Kern

Jan 28 – Preventing Injuries Through Fitness Training We cross train to relieve boredom, stress different muscles (reduce chances of overtraining) Someone with poor flexibility can increase their stretching through PNF stretching The best PNF stretch is the hold relax. Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation • Physical therapy first used for neuromuscular paralysis • There are 3 phases 1.) Passive pre-stretch – hold for 10 seconds. Slow-reversal-hold-reflex 2.) Contraction – relax 3.) Stretch alone or streth with assited agonist muscle. Hold - relax Ten second push, ten second relax • best technique to improve flexibility • technique that involves combo of alternating contractions and relaxations of both agonist and antagonists Stretching exercises • The Thompson test is used to test hip flexor tightness Don't need to know all the stretches! Is there a relationship between strength and flexibility • Yes there is a relationship, they coexist • Muscle bound or bulky muscle = zero flexibility. However, if you engage in appropriate stretching, you can still be somewhat flexible with bulky muscles • Strength training will provide individual with ability to develop dynamic flexibility through full range of motion • When you do full ROM exercise, you will get more stronger than if you did small ROM exericses • Resistance training will Develop more powerful and coordinated movements. Muscular Strength, Endurance, and Power • Strength – ability to generate force against resistance • With an increase in strength, we tend to see an increase in endurance • Muscular endurance – repetitive muscular contractions (increase strength = increase endurance) • Power – is the relationship between strength and time • Ex. We wouldn’t want a cross country runner to be built up on all strength exercises • All sports require power. We should try to improve power with our training • We can either increase muscular strength, endurance, or power • Before we can do any of these things, we need to build muscle first which is hypertrophy • In anerobic sports, we need to build muscle, then go to strength, then to power. Types of Skeletal Muscle Contractions • Isometric contraction (no length change occurs during contraction) • Isometric exercises are mostly used to assess a person on an injury. It helps to isolate the injured muscle • Isometric exercises can also help to heal a rehab patient Isotonic contraction • Concentric – shortening of muscle with contraction in an effort to overcome more resistance • Eccentric – lengthening of muscle with contraction because load is greater than force being produced • Both are considered dynamic movements Factors That Determine Levels of Muscular Strength Size of muscle: • Function of diameter and of muscle fibers • We should try to improve our cross sectional areas of muscle fibers. We can do this by hypertrophy • Hypertrophy is an increase in size of muscle fibers and size of muscle altogether. This can occur through chronic resistance training • Atrophy is a decrease in muscle size and strength. • After breaking a bone, your muscle around it will undergo atrophy • Number of muscle fibers is inherited from our parents • Someone with increased muscle fibers will have an increase in potential muscle size and strength • Neuromuscular efficiency: initial gains are due to increased efficiency (more effectively engage specific motor units) • Biomechanical factors (bones and muscles act as levers and pulleys) Fast twitch vs slow twitch • Type 1 are slow twitch. Greater resistance to fatigue. Have high capacity to release aerobic metabolism. Marathon runner would have a lot of type 1 muscle fibers. • Type 2 are fast twitch, they are inefficient and fatigue quicker. However they are able to generate great force and output. Majority of anaerobic athletes will have lots of type 2 fibers. A chronic resistance training program will increase type 2 fibers. • We can shift our fiber types through years of training Individual Make-up • Muscles contain
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