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Feb 11 feet and toes.doc

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Physical Education and Sport
Brad Kern

Feb 11 – Ch 14: Feet and Toes • Human foot functions to absorb forces and provide a stable base for movement • The tarsal bones make up the ankle • The instep is made up of the medial side of the first metatarsal, cuboid bone, astragalus medial surface • The cuneiforms are usually numbered • The talocoural joint is where Plantarflexion and Dorsiflexion occur • The shin bone articulates with the talus • The fibula is non weight bearing (bears 2% of weight) • The fibula sits on the lateral aspect of the talus • The tibia sits right on top of the talus • The weight bearing bone is the tibia • Eversion and inversion occurs In the subtalor joint (below the talus) • We should be able to palpate all the foot bones so we can pinpoint where an injury is located th • When Ankle sprains happens, we should always palpate the 5 metatarsal because it is a common fracture site. The peroneal muscle is pulled when we have an ankle roll Arches of the foot • There are 4 arches in the foot 1.) Metatarsal arch – shaped by the distal heads of the metatarsals. The distal heads are what forms the arch 2.) Transverse arch – extends across the transverse tarsal bones to form a half dome and creates an arch. 3.) Medial longistudinal arch – orginates along the medial aspect of the calcaneous. It runs all the way to the first metatarsal. Planatar calcaneonavicular liagement connects to the calcaneous and the navicular. If you rupture your spring ligament, your arch will drop. The spring ligament is called teh calcaneounavicular ligament. 4.) Lateral longitudinal arch is made up the calceous, cuboid and 5 metarsal. Plantar fascia • Helps to absorb forces • A thick white band of fibrous tissue originating from the medial aspect of the calcaneous and ends at the distal ends of teh metatarsals Muscles of the Foot and Lower Leg Check out the muscles app by realbody works Know the muscles origin, action and insertion Don't need to know nerve innervations Know table 14.1 page 223** If we are assessing eversion, and we are presented with a 3 with pain, we need to know the muscles involved with eversion. What muscles evert the foot? the lateral compartment of the leg - Peroneus (or Fibularis) Longus, Brevis and Tertius. Prevention of foot injuries • Highly vulnerable area to variety of injuries • Understand the structure, surface concerns, and anatomy of the foot structure • Injures best prevented by selecting appropriate footwear, correcting biomechanical structural deficiencies though orthotics. These are a custom designed device placed in shoes to reduce foot pain • There is a rumor that orthotics can reduce foot muscles strength. If you wear orthotics, you should engage in strength training for the feet • Foot will adapt to training surfaces over time. If will also adapt to the shoes we wear
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