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Oct 31 - achievement goal theory.doc

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Physical Education and Sport
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John Dunn

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Oct 31 – Achievement Goal Theory Continued Relationships Between “Social Approval” Performance Feedback and Goal Orientations Research Example: Treasure and Roberts Subjects: 330 British School Kids (1 , 3 , 5 year high school) We can give feedback, but based on an athlete’s motivational feedback, it affects how they use that feedback Both task and ego oriented athletes are motivated to receive socially acceptance and to win. Measures: 1.) perceptions of success questionnaire (similar to TEOSQ) 2.) Sport Satisfaction scale: (“In you sport, how much satisfaction do you feel when.. you please your teacher, parents, or friends.”) Results: Both task and ego groups (across various ages) identified social approval as an important source of sport satisfaction (ex. Source of motivation) Ex. Ego oriented athletes tend to believe that social approval is contingent upon outperforming others and demonstrating superior normative ability. They believed they were praised because they were better than other people .. while task oriented athletes believe that social approval given by significant others is dependent upon high effort and personal improvement. They said: I must have worked hard and gotten better When giving feedback, you should tell them why you are saying good job. Practical Implications As a coach, try to provide “social approval performance feedback” (ex. Praise) that clearly emphasise mastery/task achievement. ... Relates to motivational climate • If I play for a coach who only provides “social approval” feedback when I win or outperform others [competitive climate], I may adopt a “win at all costs” attitude • Decreased moral reasoning, increased aggression, decrease in sportspersonship values, increased likelihood of cheating Perceptions of Winning Both task and ego oriented athletes are motivated to win .. but each view winning in qualitatively different ways Highly task-oriented athletes view winning/victory as a sign of personal mastery and improvement Highly ego-oriented athletes view winning/victory as a sign that they are better than others It is likely that the most powerful (or beneficial) profile of achievement goals in elite sport comes in the form of high task-orientation combined with ego-orientation Task orientation can help an athlete feel satisfied even when they don't win it all. .. ego oriented athletes tend to view sport as a “means to an end” (ex. Enhanced social status), rather than an “end in itself” “Motivational Climate” Feedback Examples Competitive Outcome Climate Feedback: “well done erik. Im really proud of you. We won the race and you were great. You had the fastest time of anyone on our team, and you shot better than anyone else in the entire competition.” Here we are saying we are proud of him based on him being better than everyone else. This fosters an ego orientation. Mastery/Task Climate Feedback: “Well done Erik. Im really proud of you. You were real steady on your shooting today. Actually, that was the best you’ve shot this year. And the effort you put into your skiing over the last Kilometer was fantastic. I’ve never seen you work so hard. Here we see the coach valuing the athlete focusing on personal improvement. Over time, the type of feedback provides qualitatively different meanings for the athletes (re, whats important/valued by the coach) and will likely influence goal involvement Eccles et. al’s Expectancy Value theory Top left – expectations for succes
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