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Dec 3 -Chap 23 aggression in sport.doc
Dec 3 -Chap 23 aggression in sport.doc

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University of Alberta
Physical Education and Sport
John Dunn

Chap 23 – Aggression in Sport Defining Aggression • Aggression is any form of behaviour directed toward the goal of harming or inquiring another living being who is motivated to avoid such treatment Criteria for Defining Aggression • There is behaviour (ex. There is overt action; can be physical, verbal, or gestural) • There is intent to inflict physical and or psychological harm/injury • The behaviour is directed towards a living organism (ex. A player slashing their stick on a post isn’t an act of aggression) Hostile vs. Instrumental Aggression • Hostile aggression: primary goal (or sole purpose) is to inflict physical or psychological harm on someone, simply for the sake of hurting someone • Instrumental Aggression: primary goal is non-aggressive (ex. To obtain tactical supremacy) rather than to simply inflict physical or psychological harm • In instrumental aggression we generally don't even know who we are trying to make suffer • Ex. The action involves the intentional infliction of physical/psychological harm but this is secondary to a strategic purpose • An example of instrumental aggression is when you try to Ice the kicker in hopes inflicting psychological harm ( anxiety) with the primary purpose of making the kicker miss Sometimes its hard to tell if the aggressive act is hostile or instrumental • In reality, only the person making the action truly knows the underlying motivation of the action • An example of this is matt cookes hit on marc savard • Was cooke going out to hurt savard (hostile aggression) or was he trying to use instrumental aggression • Most aggressive behaviour in sport is “instrumental”, but there are times when “hostile” aggression takes place • Philosophical debate: given that instrumental aggression still involves the intention to inflict harm, is it an acceptable form of behaviour in sport? Assertive Behaviours • Playing within the rules with high intensity and emotion but without any intention of inflicting physical or psychological harm on an opponent (ex. A clean hit in hockey). Assertive behaviours can lead to physical and psychological harm but there is no intent to hurt the opposition Violence • Violence refers to the physical component of aggression • Violence is defined as harm inducing behaviour bearing no direct relationship to the competitive goals of sport, and relates, therefore, to incidents of uncontrolled aggression outside the rules of sport, rather than highly competitive behaviour within the rule boundaries Sanctioned vs. Unsanctioned Aggression • Certain aggressive behaviours are sanctioned (ex. Made allowed) within sports (ex. Fighting in hocked) • Sanctioned actions are ones which you consent to and allow them to happen (ex. Officials stand back and let the fight happen). • Injury resulting from sanctioned aggressive acts typically make the aggressor immune from prosecution(assuming that the aggressive act was within the acceptable format/rules of the game) Applied Issue • Given that certain sports encourage and sanction aggressive acts, we must recognize that “inflicting harm” may become a central motivator for certain participants • Does scott stevens commit aggressive behaviours because he wants to do hostile aggression or instrumental aggression? • Ex. Coaches looking for enforcers Summary Features of Aggressive and Asse
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