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Oct 15 - weight reduction 2.doc

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Physical Education and Sport
Scott Forbes

Oct 15 -Weight Reduction Part 2 29 -33 % of US are dieting 66 % of adults are either overweight or obese What is a healthy body weight? 1. Weight that can be maintained without constant dieting or restraining food intake 2. Weight at which health risks are minimized and good health is promoted 3. Weight that promotes good eating habits 4. Weight that allows one to participate in some type of physical activity 5. Weight that can be accepted by the individual 6. Weight that allows optimal performance in the sport of one’s choice 7. Weight that takes into consideration one’s genetic makeup and family history of body weight and shape 8. Weight appropriate for one’s age and level of physical development Ask these questions, if approached by someone who wants to know if they are at a healthy weight Weight Loss Ground Rules Calories are important! • Decreasing energy intake below energy expenditure can reduce body weight • Individual differences • The lower energy diets results in Fat Free Mass reduction and a decrease in Resting Metabolic Rate and are therefore typically not long lasting Composition of the diet is important! • High protein diets compared to low-fat dietsÉ • Body comp changes • Diet composition may be important for weight maintenance Protein intake is important! • Maintain Fat Free Mass • Appetite regulation during energy restriction Frequency of meals! • Small meals may be better for glucose regulation, nitrogen retention and increase the ability to maintain self-control • People who maintained weight loss were more likely to eat breakfast daily and had a higher level of physical activity than non-breakfast eaters All the commonly used diets can produce weight loss because they restrict energy intake! • Few promote weight maintenance • Good eating habits • Physical activity • Good health Commercial weight loss programs Strategies used by programs to evaluate and market their programs: • Testimonials (usually by famous people) • Descriptive data (change in weight, blood pressure, quality of life) • Placebo-controlled study, externally conducted (gold standard) Programs • Atkins (R atkins) • Duke rice program (B Hackett) • Jenny Craig (M Lewinsky) • Optifast (Oprah Winfrey) • Pritikin (M Brooks) • Slim Fast ( T Lasorda) • Weight watchers (S Ferguson) • All of these restrict diets, promote some PA High CHO diets • Rice diet, Pritikin, and ornish • Generally supported as heart healthy • Pritikin diet adopted preindustrial type diet (fiber rich fruits, veggies, whole grains, little fat from dairy and meat, protein sources from veggie sources, limited salt, sugar and alcohol, asbstained from caffeine, refined grains) • Also incorporated walking then running several km per day • Ornish (10% fat, 75% complex CHO, 15% protein from veggie sources) • a rice diet from duke uni has approx 2400 kcal, less than 5 g of fat and 25 g of protein and about 94% CHO • In this diet, there are some fruits and veggies VLCD • Very low caloric diet • Huge losses of lean tissue and minerals – affected RMR and minerals in the body • Early 1900’s to look at impact of starvation • 1920`s 400 kcaléday with 1 g of proteinékg ideal weight (losses of 10-12 kg in 8 weeks) • Optifast and Cambridge diet were popular early but death associated with liquid diets reduced enthusiasm • Optifast – 300 kcal/day in 5 feedings (45 g protein egg albumin, 30 g CHO, 2 g essential fatty acids, supplemental minerals, trace elements, vitamins) • Losses of 100 lb in 30 weeks • Other preparations included 800 kcal per day • A caloric intake of 400 kcal per day leads to cardiac ECG abnormalities but not at 600 kcal per day • Oprah`s famous loss and regain decreased popularity of optifast • Cambridge diet (331 kcal per day, 34 g protein, 42 g CHO, 3 g fat, recommended vitamins and minerals) Others • Weight watchers (behavioural modification combined with altered eating portions/ habits) • Weight loss clinics international • TOPS (take off pounds sensibly) • Jenny craig • Slim fast • If an athlete went on any of these diets, their training would suffer due to insufficient glycogen restoration Evaluation: going beyond celebrity and descriptive changes Summary from weight watchers: regular attendance leads to 5% loss of weight over 3-6 months • 50% dropout @ 6 weeks • 70% dropout @ 12 weeks Jequier and Bray (2002) Low fat diets are preferred: • For metabolic reasons, uncoupled fat intake and oxidation (dietary fat intake above energy requirements is stored in adipose tissue) • High fat foods or energy dense foods have weak satiety effects and promote overconsumption • Low fat diets are helpful for weight loss and may help with maintained weight loss (low energy diets are even better) may be associat
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