Class Notes (809,447)
Canada (493,713)
PEDS334 (12)

Oct 3 - excess adiposity.doc

6 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Alberta
Physical Education and Sport
Scott Forbes

Oct 3 – Excess Adiposity in adults and kids: metabolic consequences What if..“there.. was a chronic childhood condition that affected at least 20% of children and was increasing in prevalence, had no defined cure, had high relapse rate, limited remission and which was associated with significant adult morbidity and mortality.” – Steinbeck The more insulin, the more fat Overweight parents can predispose offspring to be obese 4 year old Russian boy who weighs 123 pounds Data from NHANES (1971 – 1974) to NHANES 2—3 – 2006 show increases in overweight among all age groups: • Among preschooled kids, aged 2-5 years, the prevalence of overweight increased from 5% to 12.4% • Among school aged children, aged 6-11 years, the prevalence of overweight increased from 4.0% to 17.8% • Among school aged adolescents, aged 12-19 years, the prevalence of overweight increased from 6.1% to 17.6% • Childhood and adolescent obesity tracks into adulthood • Canadian children are heavier, taller, fatter, rounder, less flexible and weaker than 1981 • Forecasts accelerated development of non-communicable disease increases health care costs and loss of future productivity Tracking • Overweight children are far more likely to become overweight adults than are children who maintain normal weight through the teens. Obese children • Markers include high blood glucose levels, insulin levels, dyslipidemia ( high amount of lipid in the blood) • Relationship between preclinical markers of future CHD and type 2 diabetes CV Health Many associated risk factors in adults (poor CV fitness, excess body fat, elevated CAD?Type 2 diabetes [metabolic syndrome] risk factors [hypertension, dyslipidemia, hyperinsulinemia]) found in 5-6 year old children What factors increase the risk of an infant becoming an overweight child? Evidence-based answer Variables that increase the risk of overweight in childhood include formula feeding, high birth weight, high rate of weight gain in the first 4 months of life, low socioeconomic status, and maternal obesity No single risk factor predicts overweight, and not all infants with risk factors become overweight children Adipose tissue growth • During 1 year of life, fat accumulates • During childhood total number of adipocytes (hyperplasia) increases relatively slowly until 2dincrease (rebound) occurs before puberty • Thereafter, Growth due to hypertrophy of adipocytes Genetics • Offspring of 2 obese parents have an 80% chance of becoming obese • Offspring of 2 lean parents have <10% chance of becoming obese • Early intervention important Energy Expenditure • RMR proportional to FFM • Growth requirements are modest (1-2% of TEE during childhood, 2-4% during adolescence) • Some studies suggest that current dietary recommendations overestimate TEE by approximately 11% Children: best targets for intervention 1.) during accelerated growth may be able to return to healthy parameters 2.) early lifestyle behaviour may be more adaptable to change 3.) childhood-onset obesity more severe (psychological and physical morbidity) Environmental causes 1.) Physical inactivity 2.) High fat, energy dense intake Same as adults Physical Activity
More Less

Related notes for PEDS334

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.