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Sept 12 - Energy Balance Last Part.doc

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Physical Education and Sport
Scott Forbes

Sept 12 – Energy Balance Continued • One of the things that affects the abilty to burn calories is age • Women tend to have a higher % body fat Resting Metabolic Rate • What is it? the energy needed to sustain basic life function How is it measured? • Direct Calorimetry – heat production = metabolism • Indirect Calorimetry – where you use the same procedures for VO2, but they put a bigger mask on the test person • What factors influence RMR? Age, body composition, gender Indirect Calorimetry Based on Analysis of expired gases Determine RER = ? • Ratio of VCO2/VO2 • Amount of CO2 produced varies with substrate • RER of 0.7 = Fat • RER of 1.0 = Carbohydrate • Thus measuring VO2 and VCO2 over time can give us an estimate of energy expenditure • Other indirect measures include HR, METS Variability in Measurement Due to: 1.) Instrument error 2.) Investigator error 3.) Biological variability (mood, stress, rhythms, activity, intake, etc.) • Must be minimized to keep error of measurement as low as possible Factors Influencing RMR • Fat free mass (FFM) • Fat mass (FM) • Age • Hormonal concentrations (minimal; thyroid, leptin, catecholamines) • Someone with a bigger muscle mass will burn more calories than someone with a smaller muscle mass • FFM, age, and gender explains 80% of the variability in RMR • FFM alone has a correlation of 0.82 with RMR RMR Measurement • Measured in post – absorptive state Subject is: • Resting in a supine posture • Thermoneutral temperature To Achieve these conditions, RMR measured in the morning with: • Overnight fast (8-12 hr) • Subject awake • Controlled phase of the menstrual cycle • Abstinence from exercise (12 hour) RMR • Research problems: Design issues – accuracy • Last bout of exercise (RMR decreases with the length of time after exercise) • Last meal (TEF/DIT) • Rested state • Low grade infections Thermic Effect of Feeding (TEF) • What is it? Energy needed to digest, absorb and store • How is it measured? Indirect calorimetry • Factors of TEF? Fat, protein content, spiciness of food, physical activity levels
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