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Endocrinology 1.docx

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Saswati Das

Endocrinology – basically you have too many or too little of the hormone *don’t follow the textbook but still should read Endocrinology concerned with the study of biosynthesis, storage, chemistry and physiological function of hormones and with cells of the endocrine glands and tissues that secrete them, study of hormones and their receptors, where they come from, and what they do Endocrine gland is one that does NOT have a duct system, Exocrine gland does not have a duct system and secretes hormones directly into the blood Hormone- first used by Ernest Starling, said it was a chemical messenger which may be formed by any kind of tissue Hormone producing cell: Where do certain hormones come from, which gland, and the structure of hormone (family name: protein, etc.)How is it made, is it sorted in cell or secreted at once Target cell: why does a particular hormone act on a particular target cell? Role of hormone receptors? What happens when hormone binds to its receptor (signal transduction)? What effect does the hormone have on its target? …………………………… Fig 4 – summary – look at brain as producer of hormone (pituitary gland), adrenal gland, thyroid , parathyroid, etc Which hormones produced from which glands? Fig 5. For each hormone know: where they are from? What is their structure/family? How stored how secreted how carried what happens after secreted do they have hormone receptors their *mech* of action why its important regulation of secretion and also what can go wrong? Also should know their solubility (in water or fat soluble) fat soluble – can pass through membrane but they will not be stored in cell, but water soluble will be stored in granules Fig 6. Biggest family is protein family! Lipids – cortisol and aldo come from adrenal cortex, nothing from eicosanoids will be mentioned. Monoamines – catecholamines (adrenal medulla) and share some of the properties of the protein group even though not protein, T3 and T4 share some properties of steroid group. Fig 7. How they are made? Cholesterol conversion, solid arrows = one step, dotted arrows = more than one step, Fig8. Transport to the cell – top left – traditional = hormone producing cell is yellow , green is target cell red is blood = endocrine communication Paracrine communication = hormone produced and diffuses locally to neighbour cells Autocrine = cell produces hormones and acts on its own producing cell Neuroendocrine = from nerve cell stored in nerve terminal and release of hormone into blood and carried around body to its target cell Fig 9. How do hormones interact? Surface receptors are inside the cell can predict based on solubility where they will go to the receptor. Adrenaline will bind to cell surface receptors. Inside the cell the fat soluble hormones can go into the cell and bind to cell receptors inside such as the nucleus. Fig 10. See fig 11 for Gprotein linked, 2. Fig 11. How a hormone (like adrenaline) – move from outside the target cell to the inside of the cell, this type of lochness receptor after hormone binds will change its form and trigger a cascade pathway, trigger G-protein causing change in enzymes in cell membrane and then give rise to second messengers (camp) which activates protein called PK then keep going and increase or decrease response of target cell (inhibitory or excitatory) Fig 12. Steroid hormones can pass through the cell membranes so 1,2,3,4 they can be insdie the cytoplasm or nucleus but all end up in the nucleus (hormone steroid passes through membrane which binds to receptor causes complex to move into the nucleus, or it can go to the cytoplasm to the nucleus and then find receptor in the nucleus, there are also binding sites for the dna in there which can also be used for transcript and translation Summary: Hormone receptors Cell surface receptors (used mainly by protein hormones and catecholamines) –glinked or catalytic Intracellular receptors (used mainl
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