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Traditional Ideologies - Political Science 101

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Political Science
POL S101
Davina Rousell

Ideologies: Traditional Ideologies Midterm: 30% of overall mark A: 10 Multiple choice B: 6 points for short answer, 2 questions total - Difference between positive and negative freedoms C: 14 points for long answer, 3 questions total (3 paragraphs max for each) - Differentiate between parliamentary system of government and presidential system of govt. Ideologies October 3, 2013 What is an ideology? • A set of ideas designed to... - Describe the existing political order - Present an ideal vision of what political order should look like - Prescribe a means to transform the existing into the ideal ← Ideologue: an adherent of an ideology; someone who has a set of beliefs that are uncompromising and dogmatic. Enlightenment Period - In the light of this movement was where the various ideologies emerged, applying rationality. Features of Ideology • Action oriented • Typically less rigorous than “proper” theory • Tends to combine concepts that political philosophers treat separately. • Both reflects and shapes the historical context within which it emerges. Liberalism (central idea: individualism) - Dominant Western tradition - Originates with the rise of capitalist political economies in the 17th and 18th centuries (Thomas Hobbes with John Locke) - Individualism as a central theme - Influenced a lot of our lives, the way we behave, our laws etc. - Alongside the emergence of capitalism as well, policies were developed to defend property. Classical Liberalism - Adam Smith (1723-90) - Emphasis on limiting the role of the state to providing: - Internal and external security - Enforcement of property rights Ideologies: Traditional Ideologies - Market most effective means of meeting human needs - Limited state maximized individual freedom and rewards hard work. New Liberalism (the New Right) - Classical liberalism challenged in late 1800s, early 1900s - New liberalism with emphasis on social reform -- old age pensions etc. - State intervention could increase liberty by expanding individual opportunity - However the New Right emerged in the 1970s to challenge New Liberalism (Friedrich von Hayek and Robert Nozick) - During the time of Mulroney and Reagan Liberal Thought (core meaning: liberty) • Liberty means different things to socialists and conservatives • Negative freedom - free speech • Positive freedom - emphasis on social programs • Believe in the individual - Individuals: rational and self-interested - Know what they want Believes in equality for all BUT, do not believe in equal outcomes • cont’d Liberal Thought (core meaning: liberty) • Tolerance, equality, freedom for the individual • Equality: individuals are equal in value, but liberals typically reject that outcomes for each person should be equal as well. - New liberals try to offer this through free education and health care • Core meaning of liberalism found in the concepts of liberty, tolerance, individualism, and equality (of a particular type) Classical liberalism emphasizes negative liberty (individual freedom from external constraints) • • New liberalism emphasizes positive liberty (freedom to pursue self-development, which may require state intervention) • Individuals are rational and self-interested • Communities are aggregates of individuals with competing interests Socialism (based on idea of equality) • Emerges with the rise of the industrial working class in the 19th century • Karl Marx developed a “scientific” theory of the socialism by which socialism is inevitable. Two camps: • - Communism centering on “Third International” - Social Democracy • Communism and social democracy both take their ideas from Marxist thought • USSR was formed off of Marxist ideas Ideologies: Traditional Ideologies • 2 camps: - The “Third International” - Social democracy Means and Ends - Method to achieve ideals/goals • Divisions within socialism differ in both method and end goals • The means is either - 1) Revolutionary - 2) Evolutionary 1) Revolutionary Socialism Revolutionaries are divided on the point of how it will happen • - By popular uprising (revolution - uprising of working class to take over ruling class) - Marx - Coup, led by a disciplined party - the Bolsheviks --> Lenin (Leninism was the norm in the former USSR) ← 2) Evolutionary Socialism • Universal suffrage can make socialism possible through democratic means • Assumes that the state can be responsive to the interests of the working class • Influential outside of the USSR End: Socialism and the State • Marx : the state exists solely for the benefit of the ruling class - Eliminate classes and there is no role for the state (since the capitalist state was merely a vehicle for the ruling class) • Lenin : recognized need for a state as a “dictatorship of the proletariat” - The state remains in place to ensure the victory of the people over their enemies, to ensure that the victory that the working class won against the upper class is protected. _____________________________________________________________________________ _ KEY SOCIALIST PRINCIPALS • Generally optimistic view of human nature • Human nature can be shaped by social, economic, and political circumstances • Equality of outcomes • Community and communal values (cooperation) CRITIQUE: UTOPIANISM AND AUTHORITARIANISM • Socialism is often critic
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