Chapter 6: Learning continued
1 1. CC in the real
a) Biological preparedness: is a
propensity for learning particular kinds of
associations over others.
• Many human taste aversions are result of
• 2 Key features
Ie Food Poisoning
Nervous systems form association- make you feelsick as soon as you smell/see
food. Classic Pavlovian response. Not the Food themselves but our own bodies.
Good for evolutoin to avoid foods that make us sick outside.
2 Key features-
1- Can be learned on a SINGLE trail , just have to eat the food once (as if
light=food shown and associated just once)
2- Can happen with Long Delays b/w Stimulus and US, sick hours later (as if
light=food hrs apart)
APPLY PRINCIPLES OF CLASSICAL CONDITIONING:
With chemo, food eaten before treatment assoicated with nasue afterword. We
don't want that so we give them a single jellybean before treatment that now
carries the negative association 1. CC in the real
• negative feelings with not using theduct or
APPLYING CC IN ADVERTISING
Neutral Stimulous associated with positive images until people associate the
shoe/candy ext with a positive stimulus. Ie beer with sexual arousal
Or forming a negative associating with a situation (ie Bad breath), and the only
way out is using blank product (ie. mouthwash) 1. CC in the real
a) Drug abuse
• Former addicts complain of painful
withdraw symptoms when visiting places
they used to take drugs. Why?
• Addicts sometimes overdose on regular
2 Interesting Phenomenon:
-former addicts complain of withdrawl symptoms when visiting old haunts
WHY? Form an association with that enviorment/ally/house with getting high,
transformed into conditioned stimulous from neutral stimulius. Spontaneous
-Overdose on amounts used before
WHY? Shoot up in brand new locations, new enviorment no longer associated
with drug. Body doesnt have time to begin counteracting to drug even before
shooting up. Get the full brunt of dose and overdose. 2. CC and Therapy
Can CC help treat psychological disorders?
•looding: prolonged exposure to
emotionally provoking stimulus.
•ystematic desensitization: create an
ordered list of increasing anxiety/fearful
events of stimuli. Start at bottom and work
way to top.
•version therapy: create an aversion to
something not supposed to be attracted to.
Flooding- common with phobias. Sit in a box of spiders until your body learns to
accept the stimulus. Danger of INTENSIFYING the phobia if therapy cut too
short. Not common/prefered.
SD- Set up a hierarchy of fears. Ie afraid of Spider, on a scale of 1-10 spiders
crawling all over me =10, spider in a glass box=9,rubber spider in jar= 2.Create a
list of fears. Gradually work pt through hierarchy, MUST teach them how to
relax/relaxation therapy to work through each stage. Until the # becomes a 0.
Continue up the hierarchy to desensitize them to their fears.
AT- Induce a fear/create an inversion to something. Ie pedophiles, additions,
expose themselves to public. Must create an AVERSION to their problem. Ie find
kids arousal but every time see kid shock them with electricity, or drug that
produces nausea. 3. Operant
“Instrumental conditioning” or “Instrumental
Some aspect of behavior is ‘instrumental’ in
producing a significant outcome.
Behavior occurs because similar actions
produced the same type of outcome in the
Start to learn that BEHAIVOR has consequences Not just learn to associate light
with food,but knowing that YOUR behaivoir to produce good/bad outcome
Based on idea that behavior occurs because of learning. ie. Study hard= better
grades 3. Operant
Appetitive stimulus: a pleasant
environmental event associated with a
Aversive stimulus: an unpleasant
environmental event associated with a
NOT POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE
Appettitive- do this something nice happens ie.Food, praise, money
Aversive- do this something bad happens ie Electirc shock, Beating 3. Operant
Names Contingency Effect on
Positive Positive Reinforcement
Punishment Positive Punishment
Negative Negative Reinforcement
Negative Negative Punishment
NOW THEYARE POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE
If behavior Produces something = + wether it produces bad or good
If behavior Stops something happening = - contingency wether its good or bad 3. Operant
•If the response occurs, the appetitive
stimulus is presented.
•If the response does not occur, the
appetitive stimulus is not presented.
If you produce response= Appetitative stimulus,
Positive because you produce the response, and its reinforced because your
likely to do it again. 3. Operant