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Learning Continued

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University of Alberta
Blaine Mullins

Psychology Chapter 6: Learning continued 1 1. CC in the real world a) Biological preparedness: is a propensity for learning particular kinds of associations over others. • Many human taste aversions are result of Pavlovian conditioning. • 2 Key features 2 Ie Food Poisoning Nervous systems form association- make you feelsick as soon as you smell/see food. Classic Pavlovian response. Not the Food themselves but our own bodies. Good for evolutoin to avoid foods that make us sick outside. 2 Key features- 1- Can be learned on a SINGLE trail , just have to eat the food once (as if light=food shown and associated just once) 2- Can happen with Long Delays b/w Stimulus and US, sick hours later (as if light=food hrs apart) APPLY PRINCIPLES OF CLASSICAL CONDITIONING: With chemo, food eaten before treatment assoicated with nasue afterword. We don't want that so we give them a single jellybean before treatment that now carries the negative association 1. CC in the real world a) Advertising • negative feelings with not using theduct or product. 3 APPLYING CC IN ADVERTISING Neutral Stimulous associated with positive images until people associate the shoe/candy ext with a positive stimulus. Ie beer with sexual arousal Or forming a negative associating with a situation (ie Bad breath), and the only way out is using blank product (ie. mouthwash) 1. CC in the real world a) Drug abuse • Former addicts complain of painful withdraw symptoms when visiting places they used to take drugs. Why? • Addicts sometimes overdose on regular amounts. Why? 4 2 Interesting Phenomenon: -former addicts complain of withdrawl symptoms when visiting old haunts WHY? Form an association with that enviorment/ally/house with getting high, transformed into conditioned stimulous from neutral stimulius. Spontaneous recovery -Overdose on amounts used before WHY? Shoot up in brand new locations, new enviorment no longer associated with drug. Body doesnt have time to begin counteracting to drug even before shooting up. Get the full brunt of dose and overdose. 2. CC and Therapy Can CC help treat psychological disorders? •looding: prolonged exposure to emotionally provoking stimulus. •ystematic desensitization: create an ordered list of increasing anxiety/fearful events of stimuli. Start at bottom and work way to top. •version therapy: create an aversion to something not supposed to be attracted to. 5 Flooding- common with phobias. Sit in a box of spiders until your body learns to accept the stimulus. Danger of INTENSIFYING the phobia if therapy cut too short. Not common/prefered. SD- Set up a hierarchy of fears. Ie afraid of Spider, on a scale of 1-10 spiders crawling all over me =10, spider in a glass box=9,rubber spider in jar= 2.Create a list of fears. Gradually work pt through hierarchy, MUST teach them how to relax/relaxation therapy to work through each stage. Until the # becomes a 0. Continue up the hierarchy to desensitize them to their fears. AT- Induce a fear/create an inversion to something. Ie pedophiles, additions, expose themselves to public. Must create an AVERSION to their problem. Ie find kids arousal but every time see kid shock them with electricity, or drug that produces nausea. 3. Operant conditioning  “Instrumental conditioning” or “Instrumental learning.”  Some aspect of behavior is ‘instrumental’ in producing a significant outcome. Behavior occurs because similar actions produced the same type of outcome in the past. 6 Start to learn that BEHAIVOR has consequences Not just learn to associate light with food,but knowing that YOUR behaivoir to produce good/bad outcome Based on idea that behavior occurs because of learning. ie. Study hard= better grades 3. Operant conditioning Appetitive stimulus: a pleasant environmental event associated with a response.  Aversive stimulus: an unpleasant environmental event associated with a response. 7 NOT POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE Appettitive- do this something nice happens ie.Food, praise, money Aversive- do this something bad happens ie Electirc shock, Beating 3. Operant conditioning Names Contingency Effect on behaviour Positive Positive Reinforcement reinforcement Punishment Positive Punishment Negative Negative Reinforcement reinforcement Negative Negative Punishment punishment 8 NOW THEYARE POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE If behavior Produces something = + wether it produces bad or good If behavior Stops something happening = - contingency wether its good or bad 3. Operant conditioning Positive reinforcement •If the response occurs, the appetitive stimulus is presented. •If the response does not occur, the appetitive stimulus is not presented. 9 If you produce response= Appetitative stimulus, Positive because you produce the response, and its reinforced because your likely to do it again. 3. Operant
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