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Blaine Mullins

Psychology Chapter 4: Audition 1 1. Sound 2 Sound is just the motion of molecules transmitted via compressed airwaves. 1. Sound • Sound waves are pressure changes in a medium. • Physical properties: amplitude, frequency (Hz), complexity. • Perceptual properties: loudness, pitch, timbre 3 The higher the Frequency the higher the pitch. Timbre- large complex or simple waves. How we perceive different instruments playing the same not ie C note on guitar vs piano. Ave human can hear 20-20 000Hz Muscles vibrate at 25hz- can hear muscles work 2. The ear a) Outer ear • We can hear a range from 20 to 20,000 Hz. a) Middle ear (3 bones) • Density mismatch problem a) Inner ear (3 scalae, 2 windows, & an organ) 4 The Ear 5 KNOW ALL THE PARTS OF THE EAR/PINNA Density mismatch from air- water. Lose a lot of energy because cochlea filled with fluid. Difference in SA and Lever principle overcomes this. SA 17:1 ratio focuses energy on a single point- boosting hearing/amplifies 17 x Lever Principle:The hammer anvil and stirrup swing and x1.3 amplifies (=22 x) (they are also the 3 smallest bones in the human body) Fxn of round window to provide pressure relief Good when hearing under water The Ear 6 Open up BASILAR, looks like flipper. Where Transduction takes place (change in size b//w basilar and cochlea rolled and flat) 5x more outer cilia than inner, yet majority info comes from inner cilia. The Ear 7 Temp and Basil membranes push against the hairs, the inner hair cells send action potential while outer help amplify signal/raise the roof 3. Coding frequency Phase locking & Place coding •eurons fire at 1,000 /sec. •ery low freq. = phase locking •edium freq. = phase locking & place coding •ery high freq. = place coding. 8 Phase looking- 500htz tone= 500 neurons ect.. Anything above 20000 can't be heard. Solved by Place coding- different places along basilar membrane deflect and measure frequencies): Low freq= phase locking Interm= place coding+ phase locking High freq= place coding How does relate to specificity theory? Relates to call as each location require diff neurons Coding frequency 9 Auditory cortex MGN Auditory nerve Cochlea 10 4. Localizing sound
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