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Blaine Mullins

Psychology Chapter 10: Motivation 1 1. What is Motivation? a) What is motivation? • It is one of the most important variables every psychologist has to deal with. 2 1. What is Motivation? a) What is motivation? • Motivation: phenomenon that affect the nature, strength, or persistence of behaviour. • Pleasant & unpleasant events motivate approach & avoidance behaviours. • Being deprived of a reinforcer can also increase a behaviour. 3 -Motivation to try harder, try less harder. -Something pleasant/unpleasant that motivates you to do something, or to avoid it. (similar to Operant conditioning) 1. What is Motivation? a)What motivates us? • The most effective motivators are (probably) those associated with biological needs. 4 Powerful biological motivators: -Hunger/thirst -Sex (amount we spend on workout, perfumes, cosmetics) -Safe Environment (home that will not be hit with earthquake/tornado. Animals and their nests/dens if they are not safe will find others) Non-biological motivators: -Money -Spiritual development -Self worth 1. What is Motivation? a) How are motivation & emotion related? • Emotions are ends in themselves. • Emotions act as strong motivators. 5 -Motivated to acquire emotions ie we do things to be happy, experience joy, love. And we also do things to avoid disgust, pain. -Emotions also motivate what we do, if you really love something you put the time into it. 2. Theories of motivation a) Instinct theory: behaviours are motivated by instincts and are triggered by external stimuli. • that is innate.ehavioural tendency • E.g., maternal behaviour in female mice. • E.g., eating & social contacts 6 a) maternal behavior in mice is only triggered with pregnancy, non mother mice are aggressive to baby mice, the nurture instinct kicks in after they have babies of their own -desire to have social contact is an instinct in human beings PROBLEM:humans are more complex than this 2. Theories of motivation a) Drive reduction theory: deprivation of a biological need leads to unpleasant states which drives the organism to act. Drive: internal state that restores • physiological optimality. • Homeostasis: a tendency of the body to maintain itself is a state of balance. 7 b) motivated to maintain homeostasis ie caloric intake is low, your driven to eat. PROBLEMS: 1- Drive is extremely difficult/if impossible to measure. We don't know. Cant say Mary is 2.3 x more driven than sally. 2- often driven to do things to Increase arousal, not Decrease arousal ie Foreplay,Ride roller coaster to get us aroused. 2. Theories of motivation a) Optimum level theory: organisms attempt to maintain a level of arousal at its optimum level. • If arousal is low, stimulation is rewarding, leads to higher state of arousal. • If arousal is now high, so seek to escape stimulation, leads to state of lower arousal. 8 c) maintain a balance Ie End of summer running out of things to do, bored, arousal level low.Enroll in university, your motivated to learn start school. End of September, mid classes too much stimulus/arousal from classes, your motivation drops off. You start to skip class and get bored again. 2. Theories of motivation a) Maslow’s hierachy of needs • Abraham Maslow (1954 -) • People are motivated to satisfy a variety of “needs.” • 5 Levels: physiological, safety, love, esteem, self-actualization. 9 10 Before you do anything else must take care of your physiological needs. Ie burning building your not going to stop and think about your job/self fulfillment, no you'll be getting out of the building! Then self fulfillment Then do I have friends? Sexual fulfillment. Worry about whether other people respect you? Lastly worry about your impact on the world. Some people put this pyramid BACKWORDS. ie Mahat Magandi, who went on hunger strike do to the fighting. This theory could not explain this. 3. Motivation & eating a) What is hunger? i.It’s when your stomach is empty (biological) ii.It’s when glucose levels are low (biological) iiiIt’s something you’ve learned (psychological) 11 3. Motivation & eating a) What is hunger? i.The stomach contraction theory: Stomach shrinks, walls contact each other, this produces hunger. 12 i)The Stomach Contraction Theory, stomach shrinks, walls contract each other, this produces hunger. PROBLEM- deosn't explain normal everyday hunger,the munchies, cravings. People who have had stomach removed still get hungry. 3. Motivation & eating a) What is hunger? i.The glucostatic theory: bodily signals tell itself how much energy is available. • Orexigenic signals (ghrelin?) • Anorexigenic signals (leptin?) 13 ii)The Glucostatic Theory, bodily signals telss iterslf how much energy is available. Orexigenic signals turn hunger ON, (ghrelin), Anorexeginic signals turn hunger OFF (leptin). PROBLEM: diabetics could have lots of glucose (sugar) in their bodies but still crave sweets. The signals only turn in extreme hunger/overeating. Not active in day to day hunger 3. Motivation & eating a) What is hunger? i.The psychodynamic theory: hunger has a physiological basis, but is immediately affected by learning. • Socio-cultural norms, expectation, schedule & habit all affect motivation to eat. 14 iii)The psychodanamic Theory, things like cultural norms exc influence weather your hungry. A baby first associates mother with food +safety+ warmth. Does this carry on in adulthood where we turn to food for comfort? Social norms, certain cultures (Italian, Jewish, Somali) if you eat dinner with them the host will kee
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