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29 Pages

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Blaine Mullins

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Psychology Chapter 10: Emotions 1 1. What are emotions? a) Emotions are hard to study • Because we rarely experience a single emotion at once. • contradictory ways of thinking about emotions. 2 Emotions very difficult to study. More so than sensation. -Study visual perception we can limit what you see- show just blue light. Can't separate emotions, kids drive us crazy- but we love them. Movie- we feel sad but happy. -We think emotions are one thing but at the same time we think they are the exact opposite. Ie Emotions are what makes us human beings, at the same time emotions rob us of his assassination. 1. What are emotions? a) Emotions are hard to study i.Humanity iiAction iiiControl iv.Adaptive v.Positive or negative & both 3 1. What are emotions? a) What are emotions? •Emotions are a positive or negative experience associated with a particular pattern of physiological activity. 4 -Twinki effect, defense that due to junk food/bad diet your judgment is impaired. -Emotions give us the ability to act in the world. (ie running into burning building) -Emotions rob us of our ability to act. (ie public speech) -Emotions are in our control/regulate them (yogo). Same time emotions hit us, emotions control us- memory makes us cry. -Emotions adaptive, LOVE creates social bonds, keeps us together. But can also be maladaptive- extreme love ie stalking -Emotions can be both positive and negative (fear/disgust- can help protect us,love both good and bad) - Positive and Negative emotions are subjectivite experiance emotions,same time physiolocgical changes ie heart pumps harder ect. All theories in emotion relate these two. Does a cause b, and vis versa. 1. What are emotions? a) What functions do emotions serve? • Autonomic responses • Motivation • Memory • Communication • Social bonding 5 -Activates ANS, fight or flight response. -Emotions give us motivation to try hard, study hard. Love of game/desire of future -Help consolidate memories, the more emotional memory the more likely you'll remember . -Emotions are how we communicate. We put emotions into our voice. -Emotional bonds keep us together- important with how we raise kids. 2. How to study emotions a) Neurological disorders b) Multidimensional scaling c)Ratings & judgments of expressions d) Facial musculature (Ekman & action units) e) Anthropological artifacts f)Gestures 6 2. How to study emotions a) Neurological disorders: damage to parts of brain (see: emotions & the brain). b)group of statistical techniques used to identify underlying structures. Assumption: underlying factors correspond to real variables in life. 7 a)study when you see what happens when it breaks down. b)use statics to measure emotions. Idea is that whats underlying these terms is one common relation. 2. How to study emotions a) Ratings & judgments of expressions • Problems: i.Knowledge & experience iiDepends on memory iiiDistortions iv.Rarely pure 8 c)bring models to test emotions. Problems: i)knowledge with emotions varies from person to person, what you see may not reflect the emotion. Not very objective ii) depends on memory, we are not observing the Emotion itself, but the Memory of the emotion Iii) Might be embarrassment, pride ect when asking someone to produce an emotion. iv) Real emotions are very rarely pure, never see happy/sad by itself 2. How to study emotions a) Facial musculature • Paul Ekman • Action units 9 -Developed action units, Groups of muscles that are involved in a emotion. ie- can tell the difference between a real smile, and a fake smile- different muscles. -Can also look out how emotion has been expressed over time, cross culturally and seeing similarities -Can study gestures, they are an integral part of communication. 3. Theories emotions a) Folk psychology theory b) James-Lange theory c) Cannon-Bard theory d) Two-factor theory 10 The Folk Psychology Theory Eliciting Physiological stimulus Emotions reactions 11 Not a formal theory, but this is what most ppl think emotions are. External stimulus causes an emotion, and emotion causes a physiological rxn in the body, The (William) James- (Carl) Lange Theory Eliciting Physiological Emotional stimulus reactions Experience 12 Can't cut the body's reaction(rxn) from emotion. Body must react first. External stimulus causes immediate physiological rxn that causes the emotion. The (William) James- (Carl) Lange Theory a) James-Lange theory: Problems • Speed • Hard to detect changes in own ANS • Some changes aren’t emotions • Too few patterns in ANS 13 -For some emotions are NS is too slow, ie takes a few sec for our cheeks to blush -Hard to detect small changes in body with some emotions. - Our environment can make us sweat, does that mean were scared? -Too few patterns to produce the wide range of emotions, sweat= scared,excited The Cannon-Bard Theory Physiological reactions Eliciting stimulus Emotional experience 14 MAYBE THEY HAPPEN AT THE SAME TIM
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