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PSYCO 105 (09/17/12) Psychological Disorders (con't)

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Eric Legge

PSYCO 105 (September 17, 2013) Psychological Disorders (con’t) Causation of Disorders  Specific pattern of causes probably exist for the different p-disorders (According to the medical model) Prognosis – susceptibility to treatment/cure  Each category of disorder is likely to have the same prognosis  Medical Model has issues with p-disorders but it is the best thing out there for describing disorders o Single internal causes have a single cure suggested for them Assessment Factors:  Biological (hereditary, biochemical imbalances)  Psychological (maladaptive learning or coping, biases, dysfunctional attitudes)  Environmental (isolation, poor quality of life) Example:  Causes: o Hormonal imbalance (B) o Genetic factors (B) o Faulty beliefs (P) o Hopelessness (P) o Poor coping strategies (P) o Stress (E) o Loneliness (E) Diathesis-stress model  People are predisposed for disorder (normal until trigger by stress)  According to the model, everyone has a predetermined chance for developing certain p- disorders o BUT the amount of stress needed to trigger it is different from one person to the next Culture and P-disorders  Many P-disorder distribution (# of people getting it out of population) are similar across the world  Culture specific P-disorders are recognized by the DSM-IV0TR o Ghost sickness (preoccupation with the idea of death and the deceased)  Very prevalent among Native Americans o Koro (intense anxiety stemming from believing that the genitals will recede into body and result in death)  Occurrence in South and East Asia Dangers of Labelling  Psychiatric labels/names have negative connotation o Have stereotypes associated with them (ex. Being weak, dangerous, crazy etc)  That’s why many people do not want to seek medical attention for their disorders (~70% cases not reported)  Education dispels this stigma/negative connotation  Mental health professionals may be biased (give general/common diagnosis for convenience) o Easy way: institutionalize them Labelling  Labelling makes it hard for patients to become a ‘regular’ person again (as a non- patient) o Labels stick with you for your entire life (most of the time)  Lowers self-esteem because they feel like something is wrong with them  Solution: Label the disorder, not the person o “A person with schizophrenia”  Good o “A schizophrenic”  Not so good o Not totally effective but is more effective Specific Psychological Disorders Anxiety Disorders  Anxiety = predominant feature  Comorbidity common o Anxiety + depression = common combination  Common Examples: o Phobic disorders  Fear experienced every time exposed to trigger (automatic)  Leads to impairment or distress (intense and gets in the way of normal functioning)  “Prepared fears”  Trigger to turn it into full blown phobia  Humans predisposed to certain fears  Phobias can be conditioned to irrational things but it
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