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PSYCO 105 (09/26/13) Topic 3: Treatment of Psychological Disorders (con't)

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Eric Legge

PSYCO 105 (September 26,2013) Topic 3: Treatment of Psychological Disorders  There are three main categories of therapies: o Behavioural o Cognitive o Behavioural and Cognitive Behavioural Therapy  Individual’s feelings and emotion are not taken into account  Assumed disordered behaviour is learned and can therefore be fixed by enforcing and encouraging more positive behaviour o Token economies:  Good behaviour is rewarded with tokens that clients get to spend on rewards o Exposure Therapies  Client faces real-life emotion-arousing stimulus that causes undesired behaviour repeatedly to decrease emotional response o Systematic Desensitization  Client told to relax and imagine provoking/frightening situations of increasing intensity  Less adverse reactions achieved Cognitive Therapy  Distorted thinking about self, others, and world are identifies and corrected o Through meaning of events and how they influence belief and assumptions  Technique: cognitive restructuring o Clients told to question their beliefs and become more accepting of positive and/or beliefs Cognitive and Behavioural Therapies  Combination of above two therapies  Problem focused and action-oriented o Problem identified and therapist works with client to select plan(s) of attack o If it doesn’t work, a new strategy is chosen  Effective for anxiety and depressive disorders Humanistic and Existential Therapies  Human nature = positive  Humans naturally want to improve themselves  Psych problems from: o Loneliness o Feeling of being alienated  Humanistic approach: loneliness and alienation from failure to reach full potential  Existential approach: loneliness and alienation from failure to find meaning of life Person-Centered Therapy  Is humanistic in approach  Non-directive o No advice/suggestions from the therapist… only support (encouragement/shoulder to cry on/listening ear) o You are the only person who can decide whether you have gotten better or not  3 Principles o Congruence – openness and honesty o Empathy – understanding o Unconditional Positive Regard – non-judgemental and accepting  Encourage person’s inward inclination for growth Gestalt Therapy  Is existential in approach  Help make client aware of thoughts, feelings, behaviours, and experiences o Make the client feel responsible for them  Therapist = warm and enthusiastic + coach  Focus on the “here-and-now”  Client to express feelings (let it out) o “How do you feel after that?” Group Therapy  Social interaction is effective for helping people overcome psych disorders  Types: o Couples Therapy  Relationship difficulties can be great sources of stress  Changes in both parties  Work out problems from miscommunication or misunderstandings o Family Therapy  Client is entire family  Everyone gets fair treatment in a non-judgemental atmosphere  Problem comes from whole family… not just a single person o Group Therapy  Useful for people with the same/similar problems  Therapist = discussion leader o Self-help/support Groups  Usually run by peers who have
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