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Individual And Social Behaviour.doc

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Jennifer Passey

Individual And Social BehaviourDevelopmentDevelopmental PsychologyStudy of changes that occur in peoples abilities and dispositions as they grow olderMost developmental psychologists study changes that occur in infancy and childhood because they see in infants and children the origins of adult abilitiesInfancyFirst 1824 months after birthTime of most rapid developmental changeBabies sensory systems all function at birthBabies not only respond to stimuli but do so selectively in ways that seem well designed for learningBabies Look Longer At New StimuliBabies look at new patterns intently at first and then less and less over timeWhyThey have more to learn from new stimuli than from old stimuliThey must perceive the difference between the new and old stimuli and recall having seen the old ones beforeEx 1 day olds perceive the difference between checkerboards with different sized squaresInfants Seek To Control Their EnvironmentsInfants show a special interest in aspects of the environment that they can controlEx 1 2 month olds smiled and attended much more to a mobile that moved in response to their own movements than to ones that they could not controlEx 2 4 month olds learned to make a movement to turn on lights but lost interest after they became good at itInfants Explore With Hands And Eyes TogetherExamining by 5 or 6 months babies regularly manipulate and explore objects in a sophisticated mannerSuch actions decline with familiarity but return for new objectsInvolve focused mental activityInfants vary their examining in ways consistent with an objects propertiesInfants Learn Objects Properties through ExaminationEx 9 month olds learned to produce each toys unique nonobvious effect and when given a similar toy immediately tried to produce the previous effectDont have to be taught or encouraged to examine objects Kung San infants examine objects in the same manner as other babiesOften use cues from adults to guide examination of objectsInfants Engage In Joint Visual Attention with AdultsBabies look at an adults eyes and then directs their own eyes toward whatever the adult is looking atstThis occurs in the later half of 1 year and is dependent on attention to the eyesThis helps infantsLearn which objects and events of interestIn language development
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