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Jan 16 - Methods Continued.docx

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Jennifer Passey

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Jan 16Methods ContinuedErrorRandom variability in resultsInevitable because we cant precisely control all variables that can influence behaviour ex Individual differences among the research subjects imperfections in the measure of behaviourIts consequences tend to disappear when averages are calculatedCan measure precisely ex Standard deviationBiasNonrandom directed effects caused by some factor or factors extraneous to the research hypothesisDifferent from errorCant measure bias and cant be controlledSerious problem in researchCant be identified or corrected for statistically Problems caused for researcherso Error reduces the chance of finding statistically significant results o Bias can lead to the false conclusion that a hypothesis has been supported when in fact some irrelevant factor has caused the resultsBiased SamplesIf the members of a particular group are initially different from those of another group larger populationDifferences between groups o With random assignment individual differences are a source of error o Without random assignment differences can also be a source of bias Different from population ex Literary digests poll of US votes in 1936
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