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Lecture 10

PSYCO223 Lecture 10: March 13- Self and Identity Development

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Dayuma Vargas Lascano

March 13 - The Self The Self - All characteristics of a person - Some aspects of the self: o Self-understanding ▪ o Self-esteem ▪ o Self-concept ▪ Self-Understanding: Infancy - Self-recognition/awareness o Mirror recognition ▪ The mirror test o Use of “me” o Photo recognition o Body awareness Self-Understanding: Early Childhood - Characteristics of self-understanding o Confusion of self, mind, and body o Self-descriptions ▪ Concrete, physical, active o Unrealistic positive overestimations - Understanding others o Theory of mind o Lies and commitments o Socially sensitive vs. egocentric Mid and Late Childhood - Characteristics of self-understanding o Self-descriptions ▪ Psychological, social o Social comparison o Real and ideal self o Realistic - Understanding others o Perspective taking ▪ Cognitive inhibition and flexibility ▪ Emotion regulation Adolescence - Characteristics of self-understanding o Self-consciousness o Self-descriptions ▪ Abstract, idealistic, contradictory o Fluctuating self o Real, ideal, and possible selves o Self-integration - Understanding others o Perspective taking o Perceiving others o Social cognitive monitoring Adulthood - Self-awareness o Understanding of one’s strengths and weaknesses - Possible selves o Fewer, and more realistic - Life review o Recollection, evaluation, and interpretation of one’s life experiences Self-Esteem - Also known as self-worth or self-image - Correlation studies reveal that self-esteem is related to: o Life satisfaction - Depression o Happiness - Adjustment and competence o Perceived physical appearance Self-Esteem: Developmental Changes - Childhood o Accuracy of self-evaluations increases o High self-esteem until teenage years - Adolescence o The majority have a positive self-image o Gender differences - Low point for self-esteem in young adults (18-22) - Self-esteem generally stays the same afterwards (23-49) - In mid-adulthood, self-esteem increases, peaks around 60-69, then decreases Self-Esteem: The Costly Pursuit? - Inflated self-esteem - Sources of self-esteem o Intrinsic- coming from within the self ▪ “My self-esteem depends on whether or not I follow my moral principles.” o Extrinsic- coming from outside the self ▪ “I feel better about myself when I know I’m doing well academically.” ▪ Extrinsically based self-esteem has shown to be: • Less stable • More vulnerable • Related negatively to well-being Self-Concept - Domains of one’s life: o Physical, social, academic, athletic, etc. o Correlation between global self-esteem and domains of competence: Domain: US Samples Other Countries Physical appearance .65 .62 Scholastic competence .48 .41 Social acceptance .46 .40 Behavioural conduct .45 .45 Athletic competence .33 .30 Self-Concept: Developmental Changes Mid to late Early adolescence Middle adolescence Late adolescence childhood Physical appearance   ➢  (for gils) (for girls) ➢ Scholastic ➢ competence  ➢  (for girls) Social acceptance N/A   (for boys) Behavioral conduct ➢  ➢(for girls) N/A Athletic    competence  ➢ ➢(for girls) ➢ Identity Development What Is Identity? - Identity- self-portrait composed of many pieces and visible to others o Thoughts, attitudes, behaviours and values by which one defines oneself o Multi-dimensional o Elusive concept - Identity development- interrelated changes that influence how individuals view themselves Why Do We Need Identity? - Identity provides: o Fra
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