Psychology 223 lecture 2
In order to understand development, you must focus on observable behavior and the stimuli that
exist in an individuals’environment.
A.Classical Conditioning: learning that occurs when an organism responds in a certain way to a neutral
stimulus that does not normally bring about that particular response.
B. Operant conditioning: Consequences of behavior produce changes in probability of behavior.
- Rewards and punishments shape behavior (environment)
- behaviors is contingent upon whether they are reinforced (increasing) or punished (decreasing).
- inconsistent in reinforcement can make behaviour reinforcement go wrong.
C. Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory:
- Development shaped through observational learning.
- Form cognitive representations of others’behaviors.
- May adopt behaviors, thoughts, and feelings accordingly.
D. Cognitive perspective: processes that enable individuals to know, understand, and
1. Piaget’s Cognitive Development Theory:
- Children actively construct understanding of the world.
- Organizing observations, connecting ideas, adapting to environmental demands.
schema: a pattern of thought or behavior that organizes categories of information and the relationships
Scheme: stabilize activity to acquire knowledge in a particular domain. When infant grab objects.
Assimilation: using an existing schema to deal with a new object or situation.
Accomodation: existing schema (knowledge) does not work, and needs to be changed to deal with a new
object or situation. (altering)
Sensorimotor Stage (Birth-2 yrs) Object permanence: knowing that an object still
exists, even if it is hidden.
- infant construct an understanding of the world by
coordinating sensory experiences with physical
Preoperational Stage (2-7 years) egocentric: and the infant has difficulty taking the
viewpoint of others. Children are able to think about
things symbolically.Ability to make one thing - a word
or an object - stand for something other than itself.
Concrete Operational Stage (7-11 years) - major turning point in the child's cognitive
- child can work things out internally in their head
- Conservation is the understanding that something
stays the same in quantity even though its
Formal Operational Stage (11 years and over) people develop the ability to think about abstract
concepts, and logically test hypotheses.
E. Information-Processing Theory:
- individuals manipulate, monitor, and strategize information
- Gradually develop increasing capacity for processing information.
- acquisition of increasingly complex knowledge and skills.
F. Cognitive neuroscience approaches: investigate cognitive development by focusing upon
neurological activity that is associated with thinking, speaking, problem solving, and other
Page ▯1 of ▯3 G. Contextual perspective: considers the association between individuals and their physical, cognitive,
personality, and social worlds.
Note: highlights the important of other to provide support and develop in proactive ways.
1. Bioecological approach: Different levels of the environment simultaneously impact an individual •