Lecture Notes October 2nd.
SADDUCEES Tended to come from the priests. Seen as trying to purify judaism.
Kicked out Antiochus (pork on altar guy). Strangely quite greek in their cultural
orientation though they were all about hebrew law.
PHARISEES were not priests and so they wanted to move the worship out of the
temple and to the people in general. they applied tradition and interpreation to
Tanak and focused on following culturally hebrew rules.
ESSENES / YAHAD : they're celebate, lived in desert, rejected animal sacrifices,
knew about medicine, studied hebrew text carefully, didn't eat meat or wine.
scholars found 250 scrolls dating from 200 bce to 100 ce, the dead sea scrolls. a lot
of these scrolls are old versions of texts made it into the tanak. some of the scrolls
were junk mail. some is in hebrew, some in greek, some in aramaic. some of these
texts made it into christian bible. book of enoch figures largely into these texts.
there are also these very apocalyptic texts (these are usually a reaction to political
movements, protest to foreign rule. language is veiled so as not to get yourself
crucified. talk about romans as babylon, usually talking about god coming to get
this guy off the throne or it will be a messiah, from the lineage of David).
****A messiah, someone anointed with oil who will help the jews. THEE Messiah,
though, is a magical superman in the line of David who is a military figure.
Essenes are said to have written these dead sea scrolls. None of the scrolls ever use
the term Essenes though. They do call themselves the Yahad. No reason to connect
essenes to dead sea scrolls except that they were found where the Essenes were
said to live. This is hotly contested in scholarship these days.
ZEALOTS before getting into zealots, some background:
There was a growing power in the west, the Romans, who took over the Greek
empire which had been governing the Jews before this. Romans did not govern by
overt oppression but generally left people to do as they please so long as you paid
your tribute and did not resist them or rebel. They were content to let people
worship their own gods. The romans helped fix up Jerusalem (paved streets,
provided security, built aqueducts, fixed up the temple). Romans were not these
overt opressors that they are portrayed as (at first when they conquered a place
they were terribly brutal, but after that, they left you alone if you didn't rebel).
Maccabees initially cooperated with Rome to take back Jerusalem from Antiochus.
However the Maccabeean kingdom soon started to crave their independence but
the Romans said unh unh, slowly taking over, making King Herod the king of
Israel and made Israel a province inside a larger province of neighbooring
countries which pissed israelites off even more. this is where the ZEALOTS
CAME FROM. Zealots start to fight back around the time of Augustus. They would be thought of
as terrorist, guerillas. this all came to a head with the JEWISH WAR (6673 ce).
Rome came in and destoyed the jews, destroyed the temple, and scattered the jews,
exporting them all over the kingdom. This had a major impact on how Judaism had
to be reconfigured. Priesthood, nobility, temple, government, all dismantled.
about 50 years later there was a jewish revolt centered in Egypt, called the BAR
HOCKBA REVOLT. The Romans came to see the Jews as these rebel rousers and
so the Christians would work hard to differentiate themselves from Jews so as not
to have trouble wiht the Romans.
70 ce, Jewish temple was destoyed. This is an important date. You start to see
major difference in both Christianity and Judaism after this point.
People began to focus on practices at home instead of at the temple. Shifting to
practice in small groups. Not elaborate rituals, but around reading and interpreting
the texts. This began in the Babylonian exile. This gave rise again after 70 ad.
FOCUS ON TEXT. nontemple rituals become the new ways of Judaism. focus
on animal sacrifice and such disappears. Judaism becomes incredibly portable.
Jews were banned from living in Jerusalem after the Jewish War until the end of
the roman rule. There were people who lifted robes and checked if you were a jew.
ADAPTATIONS had to be made to make this portability of Judaism functional.
The major one was a universal text.
*we see the happenings of babylonian exile happening again with the second time
the temple is destroyed.
development of a closed collection of texts or "canon". This process of
codification is called canonization. the people who were in charge got to choose
what became the official hebrew bible.
REMEMBER: Hebrew bible as it is known now was not formulated until after
the temple was destroyed. it was not necessary before this. now it was necessary.
those not included in the canon are called apocryphal
there seemed to be this back and forth amongst jews scattered everywhere
working to make these decisions. it became very judea centered, the texts.
once the jews had amassed the Tanakh, the problem to be dealt with were what to
do with all these temple rituals. without a temple or priesthood, they would need to
find a way to make these laws work for nontemple practices and applicable for the
various communities spread across the ancient world. They would work to interpret
these texts and this interpretation work led to a new occupation: