October 4th Notes.
KABBALAH & HASIDIC JUDAISMS
● > + Gematria
● > + Sefirot
● > + The Zohar
● > + Tikkun Olam
● > + Hasidic Judaism
● Israel ben Eliezer or Baal Shem Tov
KABBALAH : : : : : : : : : : usually Rabbis, those that would interpret the text,
meeting together and reading though it, finding esoteric (mystical, glen doesn't like
this term though, so "esoteric") interpretations in the Torah to help them understand
why they were being oppressed or why things were going so poorly for them. One
way was GEMATRIA:
+++ Gematria is when the letters have numeric value, so they would find one word
like Goat, add up the letters, and then took the number value for Cat, and they both
added up the same, then there was something that must be meant by it.
One thing that came of this was the Sefirot (shef ' rot). It was a diagram that had
eleven eminations that represented God. Verses would be inserted into it and plug
them into this diagram. Very cool. Won't be on test but look it up.
All of this strange arithmetic of God was in order to figure out why their situation
was so terrible.
These writings are contained in the Zohar (written in 13th century, not second
century). Folks who didn't like it said that if you read it, you would go CRAZY. It
elaborated and extrapolated stuff from the Tanakh.
Kabbalah isn't really a thing, it is a way of interpreting a thing, a mystical way of
looking at the Tanakh. The Zohar is the text that sort of lays it out the best.
The Zohar circulated around Europe and the middle east. It was argued yahweh
transformed himself into vessels of light to create the world but these vessels
became broken and he became trapped in the created world. Jews through prayer
and interpretation will free these bits of God and put him back into Heaven. This is
God's chosen people trying to figure out why things are so terrible for them and so
they are thinking, "maybe there is something wrong with God! if we can fix that, things will be ok for us."
This whole idea of repairing God with prayer and meditation is called TIKKUN
OLAM and it is part of the KABBALAH. know this for test. TIKKUN OLAM.
KABBALAH MOVED INTO EASTERN EUROPE AROUND 17TH CENTURY
look up where Kabbalah came from. Missed it.
another way of coping with the turmoil was Hasidic Judaism. These charismatic
leaders of Eastern Europe found meaning of God in every day activities since God
was trapped in the world everywhere (TIKKUN OLAM) so everything you did
was an interaction with God.
One of the main leaders, considered founder, was ISRAEL BEN ELIEZER. These
folks were called ZADDIKS. Encouraged people to find God everywhere, not just
in the sky or on a scroll. No matter how mundane, God was there.
Though they would see God in everything, they began to separate themselves from
the world by wearing black and the curled sideburns, to set themselves apart.
another response to the European persecution involved the development of Jewish
enlightenment which was centered in FRANCE AND GERMANY. while some
jews were separating themselves in Eastern Europe, others argued they need to be
more LIKE their European neighboors.
These Jews adopted the principles of the primacy of Reason rather than Faith.
MOSES MENDELSSON (check the spelling) suggested Jews go to public
educational elite structures on top of their traditional education.
The idea was, if they became just like Europeans, they wouldn't be made into scape
another major development from Jewish persecution in Europe.
A European movement beginning in the 19th century, associated with a man named
THEODOR HERZL, an Austrian journalist.
He started writing about a quest for an independent Jewish state in response to the DREYFUS AFFAIR. Look this up. He was charged for selling French information
to the Germans. He was wrongly convicted, sent to penal colony. He was brought
back for trial and half the population thought he should be sent back even though
he was innocent because he was Jewish. Herzl saw this rampant antisemitism,
even though Herzl was as European as could be, and decided the Jews need their
ZION is the name of the hill the city of Jerusalem was founded on.
There were jews before who had been writing about this stuff. That place figured
largely in their mythic history. Small groups of Jews had started migrating there in
the 19th century.
There was even a World Zionist Organization trying to figure out where they
should build their state. They didn't think it had to be Jerusalem. Alaska was
considered, Madagascar was considered.
In 1917, England stated the Balfour Declaration saying Jews should have a
homeland, it should be in Palestine, and they would do anything they could to help
them make it happen.
In 1922 the League of Nations put the declaration in practice, the British Mandate
of Palestine. At first, everyone got along. It didn't seem that big of a deal. There
had been a lot of Jews there already. Smaller communities in Palastine started to be
pressured as antisemitism heated up in Europe, tons of Jews started flooding in.
greek for "burnt up", also known as THE SHOAH (yiddish for all burnt up)
Germans made Jews scape goat for losing the war and all the fall out of their loss.
in 1933 the Nazi party forms to regain the German glory of preworld war one.
Jews had their citizenship r