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November 6 notes.docx

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University of Alberta
Angela Brkich

RELIGIOUS STUDIES, LECTURE NOTES, NOVEMBER 6 - 619 CE: Muhammad has his revelation from Gabriel. - ideas were contradictory to the ruling order - interest in monotheism, social reform. the marginalized and poor took to what he was saying. - the year 619 is referred to as the YEAR OF SADNESS. his wife, Khadijah dies. Muhammad becomes a widower. Shortly after, Abu Talib, his unclie dies. - Muhammad's other uncle took over and he withdrew Muhammad's protection because he didn't like what he was preaching. - Muhammad had no tribal alliance at this time, nor did his followers. At this time, you need tribal alliance. - so in 622 Muhammad has his night journey or NIGHT OF ASCENT. This happens when Gabriel comes and takes Muhammad to the temple of Jersulem and Muhammed ascends through the various levels of heaven, meeting major figures, until he eventually sees Allah. On his way there he is offered: ● water ● milk ● wine Water is seen as too ascetic, wine too worldly, so he takes milk, the middle path. He finally sees Allah. God says you must pray to me 50 times a day. On his way back down to Earth he runs into Moses. Moses says 50 is way too much, go back to God and renegotiate. He gets it down to 40, down to 30, and so on until he gets it down to 5. remember this for poem or something, just came up with this: HOLY MAN, DON'T USE YOUR WIFE AS A SALT SHAKER - So Muhammad comes back and takes all of his followers and flees to YATHRIB (then renamed Medina, the city of the prophet). He gains many followers here and it becomes a hotbed of Islam - this move is referred to as the HIJRA. - the muslim calendar counts history from the date of the HIJRA. - Medina turns into an economic and military kingdom that came to rival Mecca - What is Yathrib? good question for test. Yathrib is Medina. - The constitution Muhammad writes for Medina transcends tribal lines. It becomes more about - Medina became powerful and rich by RAIDING CARAVANS, which was almost seen as honourable piracy. They raided Meccan caravans. Meccans did this too. Muhammad innovated by raiding caravans during times of truce. These truces were for people to make pilgrimages to the polytheistic ka'ba so the muslims did not respect these traditions or truces. - things weren't always perfect. For a long time the Jews of Yathrib/Medina and Muslims got along but soon Jews chafed under the muslim authority and revolted in Medina. Jews and Muslims would both pray toward Jerusalem. Muhammad then had a vision and changed the direction of prayer to Mecca. This caused the revolution. The Jews were then forced out of Medina. - Muhammad always resolved to one day return to Mecca. 624 : Battle of BADR 625 : Battle of UHUD 627 : Battle of the TRENCH 628 : Treaty of COMPROMISE 630 : Cleaning of the Kaba 632 : DEATH OF MUHAMMAD BADR - originally just about capturing a caravan. meccans caught wind and sent an army. Muhammad was outmanned 3 to 1 but they still won and took slaves or ransomed the soldiers. Soldiers were not just killed, they were either made slaves or ransomed. UHUD - meccans tried to retaliate and capture medina. initially medinans did quite well but then they slipped up and Muhammad was quite hurt (physically) (this was taken as a lesson that you should not be lazy and rest on your laurels). TRENCH - meccans again tried to take medina but medina dug a trench. meccans tried to wait them out, blocking all trade to the city. it didn't work and they went home. the largest army on the peninsula can't take them out. this raises their profile not just on the peninsula but amongst other places like Persia. You start having agreements with those places. - in 628, Muhammad negotiated a truce, THE TREATY OF COMPROMISE, stopping the conflict for 10 years so that the Meccans could go on a pilgrimage to the Kaba. Huge ammounts of Meccans started to convert to Islam (the poor). - Since Mecca was losing people to Islam, they broke the truce and tried a sneak attack. The Medinans counter attack and take the city of Mecca. When this happens, Muhammad goes to the Kaba stone, trashes all the idols, sweeps it clean, and rededicates it purely to the worship of Allah.
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