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October 23 Notes.docx

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Angela Brkich

Lecture Notes, October 23, Religious Studies THE CHRISTIAN BIBLE - Canonization of the New Testament (367 CE) - TANAKH vs SEPTUAGINT, old testament - NT has 27 Books.... but no Thomas, Valentinus, or Marcion. MONASTICISM - some christians really didn't like all this canonization and the movement away from isolation and becoming part of the mainstream. - isolated. focused on prayer. studying text. misanthropic. purity. spirit/matter ideals, avoiding matter. - Developed between the 2nd-5th Century CE ● became more structured over time. ● AUGUSTINE 354-430 CE ● was a crazy party animal. then became christian. became priest. then bishop. then monk. ● articulated the trinity. made the association between being a monk and being celebate. formulated original sin. ● still influential in Christianity to this day. At this time in history, there was no one right way to be a christian. Many had different radical views. When the Roman imperial powers got involved, there was political pull for one small group who could now enforce their singular views on everyone else. All other views became illegal. This one small group were left to choose what was ORTHODOX, and everything else became HERASY. ORTHODOX meaning one "right" way HERESY meaning many "wrong" ways diocese of: WEST (LATIN): BRITAIN (NOT IRELAND OR SCOTLAND) GAUL (FRANCE) SPAIN ITALY (NORTH ITALY / GERMANY) AFRICA (ALL OF NORTHERN AFRICA EXCEPT EGYPT) ROME ------------------------------------------------ EAST (KOINE GREEK): DACIA (serbia) THRACE (bulgaria/romania) MACEDONIA (greece) ASIA (western turkey) PONTUS (north eastern turkey) EAST (middle east) EGYPT - EAST and WEST came to be more and more different overtime. When the Western Roman empire started to fall to various groups of Barbarians, the East was growing stronger under CONSTANTINOPLE. CHRISTIANITY : EAST VS WEST ● eastern orthodox & western catholic ● split finalized in 1054 CE ● east was greek speaking, west was latin ● west side was run by one guy, the bishop of rome. the east did not defer to this guy. ● east had its own authority (12 patriarchs) and didn't recognize the pre-eminence of the Pope (bishop of Rome, capital of the west Latin empire). After split in 1054 (where both claimed the other were not Christians), Eastern Empire was called Orthodox (implying the others are NOT orthodox). Western Empire was called Catholic (implying the others were not part of the catholic (greek for universal) body). BYZANTINE EMPIRE AND EASTERN ORTHODOXY ● BYZANTINE (Constantinople) centre of Eastern Orthodox Church. ● Eastern Roman Empire slowly became Byzantine Empire. ● Use of Cyrillic (greek alphabet adapted for northern languages) ● From a distance, East and West are indistinguishable but some of these differences were enough to cause a split (politics) ● Nicene Creed was used by both sides BUT ● Because Jesus was the epitome of both human and god, the eastern orthodox seen it as possible to be in complete union with God. The WEST was quite against this thinking. Because Jesus was this 200%, the Eastern thought it was OK to have pictures of Jesus (ICONS). This was seen as heretical for a time in the west. ● The one major difference was the addition the western church made to the NICENE CREED, adding the word FILIOQUE (of the Son). This was used in connection with the Trinity. Originally it said that the Holy Spirit comes from the Father. West decided to elevate Jesus to say that Holy Spirit came from both God the Father and Jesus the Son. THIS WAS A PRETTY SMALL THEOLOGICAL PROBLEM, THE PROBLEM WAS THAT THIS POPE THAT WAS NOT FOLLOWED IN THE EAST DECIDED TO CHANGE SOMETHING IN THE FOUNDATIONAL CREED WITHOUT CONSULTING THE EASTERN CHURCH, ESSENTIALLY SUBORDINATING THE EAST. ● This is called the Filioque Controversy. (it's on the final) BYZANTINE EMPIRE LASTED UNTIL THE MID 1400'S WHEN THE OTTOMANS TOOK IT OVER. For a large part of the Eastern Church's history, a lot of their congregants were under Islamic Rule to the south of Constantinople. After Constantinople was taken by the Ottomans, KIEV in RUSSIA became the major seat of Eastern Orthodox. WESTERN ROMAN EMPIRE ● Began to crumble around 400s-500s CE ● Happened for number of reasons but most obvious reason was Barbarian invasions. ● Followed by Dark Ages. Term used for Western Europe between fall of the Roman Empire and the Rennaissance. aka Middle Ages. ● What little unity remained went to the Catholic Church.
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