Lecture Notes, October 23, Religious Studies
THE CHRISTIAN BIBLE
- Canonization of the New Testament (367 CE)
- TANAKH vs SEPTUAGINT, old testament
- NT has 27 Books.... but no Thomas, Valentinus, or Marcion.
- some christians really didn't like all this canonization and
the movement away from isolation and becoming part of the
- isolated. focused on prayer. studying text. misanthropic.
purity. spirit/matter ideals, avoiding matter.
- Developed between the 2nd-5th Century CE
● became more structured over time.
● AUGUSTINE 354-430 CE
● was a crazy party animal. then became christian. became
priest. then bishop. then monk.
● articulated the trinity. made the association between
being a monk and being celebate. formulated original sin.
● still influential in Christianity to this day.
At this time in history, there was no one right way to be a
christian. Many had different radical views.
When the Roman imperial powers got involved, there was political
pull for one small group who could now enforce their singular
views on everyone else.
All other views became illegal. This one small group were left
to choose what was ORTHODOX, and everything else became HERASY. ORTHODOX meaning one "right" way
HERESY meaning many "wrong" ways
BRITAIN (NOT IRELAND OR SCOTLAND)
ITALY (NORTH ITALY / GERMANY)
AFRICA (ALL OF NORTHERN AFRICA EXCEPT EGYPT)
EAST (KOINE GREEK):
ASIA (western turkey)
PONTUS (north eastern turkey)
EAST (middle east)
- EAST and WEST came to be more and more different overtime.
When the Western Roman empire started to fall to various groups
of Barbarians, the East was growing stronger under
CONSTANTINOPLE. CHRISTIANITY : EAST VS WEST
● eastern orthodox & western catholic
● split finalized in 1054 CE
● east was greek speaking, west was latin
● west side was run by one guy, the bishop of rome. the east
did not defer to this guy.
● east had its own authority (12 patriarchs) and didn't
recognize the pre-eminence of the Pope (bishop of Rome,
capital of the west Latin empire).
After split in 1054 (where both claimed the other were not
Christians), Eastern Empire was called Orthodox (implying the
others are NOT orthodox). Western Empire was called Catholic
(implying the others were not part of the catholic (greek for
BYZANTINE EMPIRE AND EASTERN ORTHODOXY
● BYZANTINE (Constantinople) centre of Eastern Orthodox
● Eastern Roman Empire slowly became Byzantine Empire.
● Use of Cyrillic (greek alphabet adapted for northern
● From a distance, East and West are indistinguishable but
some of these differences were enough to cause a split
● Nicene Creed was used by both sides BUT
● Because Jesus was the epitome of both human and god, the
eastern orthodox seen it as possible to be in complete
union with God. The WEST was quite against this thinking.
Because Jesus was this 200%, the Eastern thought it was OK
to have pictures of Jesus (ICONS). This was seen as
heretical for a time in the west. ● The one major difference was the addition the western
church made to the NICENE CREED, adding the word FILIOQUE
(of the Son). This was used in connection with the Trinity.
Originally it said that the Holy Spirit comes from the
Father. West decided to elevate Jesus to say that Holy
Spirit came from both God the Father and Jesus the Son.
THIS WAS A PRETTY SMALL THEOLOGICAL PROBLEM, THE PROBLEM
WAS THAT THIS POPE THAT WAS NOT FOLLOWED IN THE EAST
DECIDED TO CHANGE SOMETHING IN THE FOUNDATIONAL CREED
WITHOUT CONSULTING THE EASTERN CHURCH, ESSENTIALLY
SUBORDINATING THE EAST.
● This is called the Filioque Controversy. (it's on the
BYZANTINE EMPIRE LASTED UNTIL THE MID 1400'S WHEN THE OTTOMANS
TOOK IT OVER.
For a large part of the Eastern Church's history, a lot of their
congregants were under Islamic Rule to the south of
After Constantinople was taken by the Ottomans, KIEV in RUSSIA
became the major seat of Eastern Orthodox.
WESTERN ROMAN EMPIRE
● Began to crumble around 400s-500s CE
● Happened for number of reasons but most obvious reason was
● Followed by Dark Ages. Term used for Western Europe
between fall of the Roman Empire and the Rennaissance. aka
● What little unity remained went to the Catholic Church.