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Lecture

November 8 Notes.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYCO239
Professor
Angela Brkich
Semester
Fall

Description
RELIGIOUS STUDIES, NOVEMBER 8th, LECTURE NOTES QUR'AN - direct words of Allah - 114 Surahs (chapters) - canonized / codified standard version took 300 years. The finalized version can be successfully traced straight back to UTHMAN. *need to know uthman, umar, earlier figures for test - not much deviation from mouth of Muhammad to what we have now. - in 1972, some workers renovating a mosque in Yemen found a pile of documents: dated between 705 & 715. created only 70 years after death of the prophet. these texts are written without vowel marking, allowing the words to have as many as 30 possible translations. Simple forensic techniques show that the texts were overwritten by different texts. - words from several different ancient languages are in the koran and can be interpreted differently. - luxembourg's research does not challenge any of the major tenants of Islam. - the Koran, despite its presentation of being unchanged and without moderation, it did take time for it to stabilize. In the beginning there was some contradictions. Arabic is polyvalient, meaning that the same piece of text can mean different words. - koran has huge body of commentary that aims to flesh it out. - these commentaries became more important as Islam spread from its cradle to different parts of the world. *as they spread into parts of the world with other languages, like aramaic, how do you explain these arabic texts? aramaic words make their way in. - TAFSIR: the act of offering a commentary on the Qur'an - the Quranic exegesis has only been done by men, women are excluded from this and often illiterate. - BISMILLAH: this is the passage that all the Surahs but #9 start with, a shorthand way of referring to Allah. *know tafsir for midterm CALIPHS (con't) - Uthman was an UMMAYAD - lot of people didn't like UTHMAN. Reasons: ● his attempt to standardize the Qur'an. this meant that some people's versions were suppressed, they felt threatened and resisted this. - UTHMAN was assassinated in 656. - ALI was related to Muhammad. He was a respected politician, theologian, and person. Some thought he was a part of uthman's assassination. He didn't punish his assassinators to the fullest. - This causes a split between those who had supported Uthman and those who did not (who came to support Ali) - this led to the BATTLE OF THE CAMEL in 656 CE - things got so intense that in order to end the stand off, ALI agreed to get together with a new committee and pick a new Caliph. Some chose Ali, some didn't. They eventually decided against Ali. - 661: Ali was assassinated (essentially by some of his previous followers for agreeing to this arbitration) - in 670: his son HASSAN was assassinated - in 680: his son HUSSEIN was assassinated - THIS ENDS THE LINE OF MUHAMMAD - And so Umar/Uthman's family takes over and begins the DAMASCUS CALIPHITE, in power for 70 years. - this whole conflict marks the split of the SUNNI and SHIA. HADITH - The Hadiths are a collection of sayings, doings, thinkings of muhammad as remembered by folks close to him and passed on. - Hadiths are like WWMD - contain info about how to interpret certain passages of Qur'an and concerns about daily living. - his followers wanted a codified collection of the Hadith ~ sayings and doings - stuff like what foot to put through the doorway first (left foot as it happens) - assumed to have developed from "oral" tradition - ISMA: the quality of never knowingly sinning. Muhammad was said to have ISMA. Doing these sinless actions was a good safegaurd for the pious. - this tradition helped the Umma make their own individual decisions. SUNNI & SHI'A - Sunni: "followers of the Sunna" or "Way of Muhammad" ● 90% of Muslims are Sunni ● major ideological stance, NO SUCCESSOR: up to the Umma to elect one and this leader has no special status. ● they have a variety of HADITHS that seem to back this no successor policy ● The successor is not to have any special status, only man, no replacement for muhammad nor is he a prophet. - Shi'a: ● 10% of Muslims, minority group ● Claim that Muhammad's successors should follow the blood lines of Muhammad. It should be Ali and his children. Ali was killed though and so were his kids. ● This carries out into certain theological perspective. ● Iran is all Shi'a ● Ali was only legitimate successor ● Muhammad was given a mystical grace and by his blood, his descendents inherit this. ● the IMAM for them is a very important religious figure, an authority granted by God. This is more like pope compared to how Sunni see the imam, sunni's see imam more like a democratic / republican leader. *in shi'a it is Imam, in sunni it is imam. SHI'As trace leadership to 12 lines: TWELVERS look this up in tb - 85% of Shi'a look to the twelvers - succession of 12 Imans - MUHAMMAD AL MAHDI "Concealed Iman" will come out of hiding at the end of days and bring about a new world order. They argue that he is in fact thee MAHDI (that we had t
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