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November 20 Notes.docx

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University of Alberta
Angela Brkich

NOVEMBER 20 LECTURE NOTES RELIGIOUS STUDIES 101A ISLAMIC PRACTICE CIRCUMCISION - carried over into islam. not spoken about in Qur'an. 99% of muslim communities practice it. - Many cultures do it around 7 or 8 instead of at birth. - becomes a rite of passage with a first public recitation of qur'an and big feast after. FEMALE CIRCUMCISION - quite violent - isn't about submission to god, usually done under patriarchal context. - female mutilation - muslims are not the only ones who do this - not talked about in the qur'an - some communities practice it and try and legitimate it as a muslim rite. - not that wide spread - those that do practice it engage in it for different reasons. - it rarely is public, usually private and secretive - usually a lady / girl thing HALAL - food laws much like judaism - word means "legal", mostly applied to food. - no pork - meat must be slaughtered properly, similar to kosher - the differences between kosher and halal: ● no alcohol ● broader in terms of types of meat you can eat. if animal subsists on grass and leaves, you can eat it. ie. camel meat is halal but not kosher ● for some muslims, shellfish is considered halal but for many they still don't eat shellfish. ● halal can mix dairy and meat ● FIVE PILLARS OF ISLAM on test! - necessary to be muslim SHAHADA OR CREED ● "THERE IS NO GOD BUT ALLAH AND MUHAMMAD IS HIS PROPHET" ● means witness or bearing witness ● profession one must make solemnly to become a muslim and that is all it takes ● once having said it, you are held to the laws of muhammad. ● tends to be repeated throughout one's lifetime ● first thing an infant hears SALAT OR PRAYER ● 5 TIMES PER DAY ● MUZARAH calls to prayer ● prayer is generally for worshiping allah but you can also use this time to make petition to god ● story of muhammad negotiating with god ● prayer is done facing mecca ● only supposed to be done after someone has prepared themselves ritually: take off shoes, perform absolutions like watching hands arms feet ankles face nostrils mouth. then, in a quiet clean place, individuals perform a series of poses ● MUEZZIN ● RAKA'AH - series of poses during prayer ● prayer rug ● friday noon or early evening service is especially important. contains sermon. end of the world is supposed to happen on a friday so it's good to get your prayers and absolution out of the way. ● in mosques, MEN & WOMEN are generally separated ● some mosques don't even allow the women in the mosque ● may be separated from men by curtain or rooms or something, differences determined by how conservative the mosque is. ● in some mosques, especially feminist muslims in NA, women are becoming head imams that are conducting the friday services ZAKAT OR ALMSGIVING ● general expectiation that believers should be willing to give financial support to God, the poor, and religious buildings ● in some countries this takes form in an actual tax (roughly around 2.5%)—this is where the whole DHIMMI thing comes in ie if you are non-muslim and live in Saudi Arabia, you pay the 2.5% too, not as Zakat but as Dhimmi. ● all sorts of rules are applied to your status of wealth to determine these things. ● there are all kinds of organizations responsible for calculating your zakat and deciding where it could go ● there's no hard and fast rules for which charities to give it to but it is usually argued LOCAL FIRST, NATIONAL SECOND, INTERNATIONAL THIRD. ● extravoluntary acts are encouraged but not required SAWM OR FASTING ● ritual fasting during the month of RAMADAN ● Islam, like Judaism, uses LUNAR CALENDAR (12 months, 354 days, years counted from HIJRA aka migration to medina) ● RAMADAN is ninth month ● RAMADAN is said to be when Muhammad started getting his revalations ● all muslims healthy, strong, not pregnant, not breastfeeding, and not any arduous journey are to fast during the day. ● fast from food, smoking, fighting ● this period of fasting is to be used for controlling your passions, reconciling yourself with Allah ● when
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