RELIGIOUS STUDIES 101B Lecture Notes April 2
LATE TOKUGAWA / EDO
lots of instability (as compared with early)
DAIMYOs were accumulating a lot of resources and samurai loyalty
and started to fight back against the shogunate.
then COMMODORE MATTHEW PERRY comes to japan is like you have to
TRADE with us.
they were like no.
perry took a cannon and bombed some buildings on the shoreline,
left, and came back in a year.
it was clear to japan that the americans wanted to trade and if
japan didn't do it they would invade japan and they were more
split ruling classes over whether to go to war or to cooperate
the daimyo who wanted to cooperate won
fight in japan happened, authority of shogunate crumbled.
daimyo in satsuma and choshu banded together and took control of
the government (defeated the shogunate).
MEIJI PERIOD 1868-1912
FORMATION OF DIET
● separation of buddhist and shinto spaces, deities
● formation of state shinto
● all other shrines called religious RISE OF NEW RELIGIONS
but emperor was seen as a KAMI so it was difficult to take
power. the first thing the meiji did was formalized and
furthered the separation of buddhist and shinto.
- started developing shinto as national religion of japan of
- forced every cultic area to be redefined as either shinto or
buddhist. deities housed and shrined in these places had to be
defined as a KAMI or BODHISATTVA, undoing that principle from
before where kami's were bodisattvas
- a lot of temples were taken down
- changes happening quickly so that's why the explosion of new
religions. lots of people were upset. they saw the practices
they had been doing before had ALWAYS BEEN. they thought the
bodhisattvas and kami would be upset and cause calamities. so
they formed their own religion they thought more approved of by
the gods than by the govt.
SHINTO became STATE SHINTO and temples and priests were funded
by the state. rituals for the govt and emperor and japan were
required from all japanese people.
the registration in tokugawa period moved from buddhist sites to
on top of all this, the constitution guaranteed FREEDOM OF
priests of shinto were govt employees.
THIS MEANT THAT SHINTO WAS NOT A RELIGION ANYMORE, IT WAS
DEFINED AS A STATE OF ETHICS.
all the other shrines and home shrines were all classified as
religions but not shinto.
so people could theoretically practice any religion they want AS LONG AS IT DIDN'T CHALLENGE THE AUTHORITY OF THE GOVT
all this turmoil...at the same time a sense of stability
eventually came, specifically a stable national identity.
before meiji, people identified with region in japan they were
from. different kami, different festivals, different performance
of same rituals, sense that these regions were distinct
meiji nationalized many things; national curriculum, lessons,
books, all children had to go to schoool, all learned the same
things, standardized japanese instead of regional dialects, and
with all these changes, everyone was registering in the
different shrines and they were all getting the same rituals and
same system of ethics and being taught that these practices and
ethics went back to the very first (legendary) emperor. people
started to think of themseves as JAPANESE.
japanese nationalism had a strong negative identity and the
sense of superiority that comes with it: japanese adament that
they are not chinese and they are better than chinese. this
obviously leads to warfare. occupation of manchuria. the nanking
massacre. occupation of korea. everything they did in WWII
JAPANESE SURRENDERED IN 1945
NEW CONSTITUTION 1946, america wanted this. prohibited military.
wanted natinalist rhetoric in education eliminated. wanted
women's rights. wanted REAL freedom of religion. hirohito and
the emperor (Showa) had to renounce his divine status. Showa had
to proclaim on the radio publicly that he is NOT a KAMI and
people don't need to perform rituals for him. and so they
disassembled state SHINTO since there was no need for it.
during war lots of religions squashed and lots of religious
so now people could participate in any religion they wanted.
SHINTO SHRINES were reverted back to their former religious
new shinto shrine: YASUKUNI SHRINE. dedicated to any soldier died during meiji
restoration, anyone who died in World War One, and anyone who
died in World War Two, and also women and students who died in
war efforts (nurses, some students from okanawa who were being
evacuated and their ship was sunk) they are all ENSHRI