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April 2 Notes.docx

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Angela Brkich

RELIGIOUS STUDIES 101B Lecture Notes April 2 LATE TOKUGAWA / EDO lots of instability (as compared with early) DAIMYOs were accumulating a lot of resources and samurai loyalty and started to fight back against the shogunate. then COMMODORE MATTHEW PERRY comes to japan is like you have to TRADE with us. they were like no. perry took a cannon and bombed some buildings on the shoreline, left, and came back in a year. it was clear to japan that the americans wanted to trade and if japan didn't do it they would invade japan and they were more militarily advanced. split ruling classes over whether to go to war or to cooperate the daimyo who wanted to cooperate won fight in japan happened, authority of shogunate crumbled. daimyo in satsuma and choshu banded together and took control of the government (defeated the shogunate). MEIJI PERIOD 1868-1912 FORMATION OF DIET 1889 CONSTITUTION ● separation of buddhist and shinto spaces, deities ● formation of state shinto ● all other shrines called religious RISE OF NEW RELIGIONS NATIONAL IDENTITY. but emperor was seen as a KAMI so it was difficult to take power. the first thing the meiji did was formalized and furthered the separation of buddhist and shinto. - started developing shinto as national religion of japan of antiquity. - forced every cultic area to be redefined as either shinto or buddhist. deities housed and shrined in these places had to be defined as a KAMI or BODHISATTVA, undoing that principle from before where kami's were bodisattvas - a lot of temples were taken down - changes happening quickly so that's why the explosion of new religions. lots of people were upset. they saw the practices they had been doing before had ALWAYS BEEN. they thought the bodhisattvas and kami would be upset and cause calamities. so they formed their own religion they thought more approved of by the gods than by the govt. SHINTO became STATE SHINTO and temples and priests were funded by the state. rituals for the govt and emperor and japan were required from all japanese people. the registration in tokugawa period moved from buddhist sites to shinto sites. on top of all this, the constitution guaranteed FREEDOM OF RELIGION! HA. priests of shinto were govt employees. THIS MEANT THAT SHINTO WAS NOT A RELIGION ANYMORE, IT WAS DEFINED AS A STATE OF ETHICS. all the other shrines and home shrines were all classified as religions but not shinto. so people could theoretically practice any religion they want AS LONG AS IT DIDN'T CHALLENGE THE AUTHORITY OF THE GOVT all this the same time a sense of stability eventually came, specifically a stable national identity. before meiji, people identified with region in japan they were from. different kami, different festivals, different performance of same rituals, sense that these regions were distinct meiji nationalized many things; national curriculum, lessons, books, all children had to go to schoool, all learned the same things, standardized japanese instead of regional dialects, and with all these changes, everyone was registering in the different shrines and they were all getting the same rituals and same system of ethics and being taught that these practices and ethics went back to the very first (legendary) emperor. people started to think of themseves as JAPANESE. japanese nationalism had a strong negative identity and the sense of superiority that comes with it: japanese adament that they are not chinese and they are better than chinese. this obviously leads to warfare. occupation of manchuria. the nanking massacre. occupation of korea. everything they did in WWII JAPANESE SURRENDERED IN 1945 NEW CONSTITUTION 1946, america wanted this. prohibited military. wanted natinalist rhetoric in education eliminated. wanted women's rights. wanted REAL freedom of religion. hirohito and the emperor (Showa) had to renounce his divine status. Showa had to proclaim on the radio publicly that he is NOT a KAMI and people don't need to perform rituals for him. and so they disassembled state SHINTO since there was no need for it. during war lots of religions squashed and lots of religious leaders imprisoned. so now people could participate in any religion they wanted. SHINTO SHRINES were reverted back to their former religious thing... new shinto shrine: YASUKUNI SHRINE. dedicated to any soldier died during meiji restoration, anyone who died in World War One, and anyone who died in World War Two, and also women and students who died in war efforts (nurses, some students from okanawa who were being evacuated and their ship was sunk) they are all ENSHRI
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