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February 5 Notes.docx

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Angela Brkich

RELIGIOUS STUDIES Lecture Notes February 5 sikh scriptures encompasses a vast number of texts, including some that aren't even sikh (pre-sikh) AKAL PURAKH, God, and the importance of his name: NAM. activities and practices are crucial adi granth plays a significant and central roll in all of the life-cycle rituals. the five k's: the breeches, the wooden comb, the uncut hair, the bracelets, and the miniature sword there are correlations between the five K's and AKAL PURAKH. it provides religious identity on top of the physical identity. there is also the code of conduct: what kind of food you can eat, no tobacco, no adultery, social responsibility: justice (respecting others, a commitment not to exploit others), oneness of humankind and religion (the defence of human rights for all people, not just sikhs), service (rendered indiscriminately to everyone, key aspect to religious life) MODERNITY Khalsa spent their first century fighting the Mughal empire. in 1799, RANJIT SINGH unified the Punjab and took control of the Lahore. He declared himself MAHARAJA (sanskrit for great king. popularly understood as emperor). RANJIT gave himself this name. - SIKH COMMUNITY EXPANDS - PEACE FOR FOUR DECADES - His rule encompassed great religious diversity. - He forged an alliance with the non-khalsa's - after RANJIT SINGH died, they lost to the british and were annexed. the sikhs still wanted an independent sikh state. - why is an independent state so important for emerging religions? how does it relate to identity? security. pride. validity of your god. REFORM MOVEMENTS all initiated from inside, by Sikhs 1. nirankaris - BABA DAYAL DAS, eliminating hindu influences! remember that for nanak there is no hindu and no muslim, so some may have reverted without much trouble. he called them back. 2. namdharis - BABA RAM SINGH, stressed the importance of the khalsa. instated the order of the Sant (devout Khalsa), created new rituals like ALL WHITE DRESS and VEGETARIAN. baba ram singh becomes big activist, passive resistance, etc. many namdharis were executed without trial by the british and baba ram singh was exiled. 3. singh sabha movement - est. by four prominent sikh reformers. the threats responded to: reversion to hinduism and christian missionary. the dominant branch secured and restored all historical GURDWARAS. the SGPC was established to control the GURDWARAS. this give the SGPC huge power politically, economically, and religiously. They even published a guide that became the "orthodox" practice of sikhism. THERE IS NO SINGLE AND COHERENT SIKH - the sikh panth is neither monolithic nor homogeneous - only 20% of the sikh 25 million are in the "big orthodox" Khalsa or "AMRIT-DHARIS" - some of the remaining 80% follow the khalsa code even when they aren't initiated to the Khalsa, these are called "KES- DHARIS" - they are all sikhs though. - so the majority of sikhs have not gone through the initiation to become amrit dharis, even though they follow the five k's. FAMILY AND SOCIETY - liberation was not in asceticism, but in the life of the householder. - caste discrimination was not supposed to matter, but people still tend to marry in their caste - concept of HONOUR plays a huge role in family life - all roles of gender are approached from the view of family - women are supposed to follow norms of modesty and honour and to think about the family. BUT women were also offered the opportunity to follow the five k's if they want. - also granted the opportunity to obtain leadership positions, even though they are usually filled by men. - women are active participants in the Panth. MUSIC ART AND LITERATURE - sikhism is the only world religion that uses SONG as its MAIN media for its religion. - poems are also huge, since nanak was a poet. - fine art as well. - tb notes that literature can be considered as an art. - their literary tradition began with writing down hymns - no anthropomorphic representations of god in any art (especially IDOLS). - god not depicted in art 20C INDIA the SGPC, has become an authoritative voice on all Sikh affairs. ● democratic insitution ● has power of edicts and punishments - when british withdrew in 1947, the punjab was split in two, with half their people in pakistan and half in india - they are still legally lumped in with hindus instead of just sikhs. - many have worked towards and even demanded an independent sikh state in the punjab, which has led to bloodshed. - in 1984 operation Blue Star. many armed militant radicals provoked a confrontation by occupy the golden temple. the indian govt sent the army (this is what was called the blue star operation). it was a massacre. the sikh body guards of the president, indira ghandi, assasinated her. then the indians turned on the sikhs. that caused reforms for more fundamental vs more secular. - this also caused a diaspora. - where they have moved, they've had to adapt. they have had a lot of renewal and redefinition. JAINA TRADITIONS ------------------------- AS A GROUP, IT ISN'T EVEN RECOGNIZED. Legally understood as part of Hinduism. Efforts to have it recognized for over a century. - though there are similarities with Hindu, tehre are big distinct questions. - when do we start to examine a group as differnt from the group they branched out of? when the people in the group see themselves as separate and different from the religions they emerged from. - the jaina do n
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