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Lecture

February 7 Notes.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYCO239
Professor
Angela Brkich
Semester
Winter

Description
RELIGIOUS STUDIES Lecture Notes February 7 JAINA is equally about RESTRAINT and NON-VIOLENCE their NON-VIOLENCE is RADICAL NON-INTERFERANCE remember this it is the cessation of activity. they believe all life is at the expense of other life, so you just have to stop doing everything. paradoxically: JAINAS are known for their asceticism but also great success, they have other worldly goals and this-worldly goals. for studying, if the term is in the back of teh chapter, in the handout outline, and in the slides, it is probably on the test. JAINA SACRED LITERATURE JINA MAHAVIRA was the first person to transmit the scriptures. in our era, it was JINA RSABHA to propound it, then by all the prophets after him. RSABHA came before MAHAVIRA. he was first in this cycle to propound these scriptures. first of 24 jinas. sacred scripture called AGAMA. it has three main oral branches: ● the PURVA ● the ANGA doctrine, practices, stories etc ● ANGABAHYA commentaries dialogues a devastating famine hits northern india around 4C BCE and the old jaina canon (purva) is lost. our knowledge of the agama becomes sketchy. OUR KNOWLEDGE OF SACRED LITERATURE HERE BECOMES VERY SKETCHY. the three branches are guestimates the PURVA, the oldest part, basically disappeared. but a lot of that content is in the ANGA, and that part that has the oldest stuff in it is called the DRSTIVIDA DRSTIVIDA in the ANGA has all the oldest jina teaching. the SVETAMBARAS believe that the essence of this text is in the ANGABAHYA. the DIGAMBARAS claim to retain the majoirty of the DRSTIVADA. this was recorded in a book called SATKHANDAGAMA (1st written text) so the two groups disagree and use different scriptures and reject each other's scriptures flat out. both sects have post-canonical books which have achieved canonical status in their respective groups. though there are big differences between the two groups texts, there are many shared ideas. there is actually a text called the TATTHVARTHA SUTRA that is valued by both the SVETAMBARA and the DIGAMBARA. it's from 2c CE and deals with values that both share. COSMOLOGY Svetambara and Digambara agree on cosmology - cosmos composed of six eternal substances called the DRAVYA. knowledge of the six DRAVYA is an important step towards ___freeing yourself____ the dravya are classified in one of two groups: JIVA those with souls and AJIVA those without souls like samsara, the JIVA are caught in the cycle of rebirth (or samsara). goal is to be liberated. jiva is just this one thing, samsara / rebirth. the other five: the five types of AJIVA... four of them are just variants of PUDGALA, know just pudgala, all variants necessary for pudgala to work. to free yourself, you need to free yourself from pudgala. AJIVAS ARE: PUDGALA, TIME, DHARMA, ADHARMA, AND SPACE, which makes up all of physical existence PROBLEM: the relationship between Jiva and Ajiva is complicated and not antithetical. The worldly soul that seeks to be released is very dependent on the world itself. YOU MUST ESCAPE FROM ALL THE AJIVA AND THE JIVA. the fundamental issue is that jiva and ajiva are intertwined, and because of this, the soul is prevented from achieving bliss. (different from atman and brahman, because jiva and ajiva are all intertwined) to escape, you need the knowledge and all that stuff which is itself ajiva. the soul must be pure and completely detached from everything that is not soul. two types of karmaL PUNYA: auspicious karma PAAP: band karma in the end, all forms of karma need to be eliminated/purged. all karma is ajiva. jiva and ajiva are eternally entangled through self restraint we can discipline passions and eventually just quell them. w/o passions, we will stop the karma flow. the process of purging is called NIJARA While most karma ripens like fruit, they believe that through ascetic practice, karma can vanish before it is produced. engaging in restraint and these practices, we can prevent karma from developing, we can quash the passions, and when the passions are all gone, there will be no more intertwining of jiva and ajiva. YOU WANT TO UNTANGLE THE JIVA FROM THE AJIVA you must acknowledge that this world is harsh and purposeless and needs to be pushed aside all together, good and bad. DIFFERENTIATION the threat of assimilation was ever present - they had to forge alliances and secure patronage to survive. - used political skills, wealth, and working together to make space in society for their tradition to even exist. ie. the khastriyas teamed up with the jainas to oust the brahmins from their claims to power. despite the split between the svetembaras and digambaras, they still worked out without working with each other. despite small numbers, the tradition flourished. their monasteries had little to plunder though. because they didn't have a lot of wealth and because they were very decentralized, their social organization helped them to survive. they weren't targets liek some of the buddhists would ahve been. REFORM - the majority of reform movements were initiated by HOUSEHOLDERS, not theologians or monks like usual. not by the ascetics, by householders. - developed around 15 and 17 centuries and centered on temples and asceticism - saw a correlation between the temples and gaining money and such AND laxity among the ascetic renouncers. people are just going there to not work and hang out. lazy cop outs temple dwelling was thus condemned. LONKASHAHA: a Svetambara lay reformer, criticised the temple- dwelling ascetics saying they were not showing enough RESTR
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