RELIGIOUS STUDIES Lecture Notes February 7
JAINA is equally about RESTRAINT and NON-VIOLENCE
their NON-VIOLENCE is RADICAL NON-INTERFERANCE remember this
it is the cessation of activity. they believe all life is at the
expense of other life, so you just have to stop doing everything.
JAINAS are known for their asceticism but also great success,
they have other worldly goals and this-worldly goals.
for studying, if the term is in the back of teh chapter, in the
handout outline, and in the slides, it is probably on the test.
JAINA SACRED LITERATURE
JINA MAHAVIRA was the first person to transmit the scriptures.
in our era, it was JINA RSABHA to propound it, then by all the
prophets after him.
RSABHA came before MAHAVIRA. he was first in this cycle to
propound these scriptures. first of 24 jinas.
sacred scripture called AGAMA.
it has three main oral branches:
● the PURVA
● the ANGA doctrine, practices, stories etc
● ANGABAHYA commentaries dialogues
a devastating famine hits northern india around 4C BCE and the
old jaina canon (purva) is lost. our knowledge of the agama becomes sketchy.
OUR KNOWLEDGE OF SACRED LITERATURE HERE BECOMES VERY SKETCHY.
the three branches are guestimates
the PURVA, the oldest part, basically disappeared. but a lot of
that content is in the ANGA, and that part that has the oldest
stuff in it is called the DRSTIVIDA
DRSTIVIDA in the ANGA has all the oldest jina teaching.
the SVETAMBARAS believe that the essence of this text is in the
the DIGAMBARAS claim to retain the majoirty of the DRSTIVADA.
this was recorded in a book called SATKHANDAGAMA (1st written
so the two groups disagree and use different scriptures and
reject each other's scriptures flat out.
both sects have post-canonical books which have achieved
canonical status in their respective groups.
though there are big differences between the two groups texts,
there are many shared ideas.
there is actually a text called the TATTHVARTHA SUTRA that is
valued by both the SVETAMBARA and the DIGAMBARA. it's from 2c CE
and deals with values that both share.
Svetambara and Digambara agree on cosmology - cosmos composed of six eternal substances called the DRAVYA.
knowledge of the six DRAVYA is an important step towards
the dravya are classified in one of two groups:
JIVA those with souls
and AJIVA those without souls
like samsara, the JIVA are caught in the cycle of rebirth (or
samsara). goal is to be liberated. jiva is just this one thing,
samsara / rebirth. the other five:
the five types of AJIVA... four of them are just variants of
PUDGALA, know just pudgala, all variants necessary for pudgala
to work. to free yourself, you need to free yourself from
AJIVAS ARE: PUDGALA, TIME, DHARMA, ADHARMA, AND SPACE, which
makes up all of physical existence
PROBLEM: the relationship between Jiva and Ajiva is complicated
and not antithetical. The worldly soul that seeks to be released
is very dependent on the world itself.
YOU MUST ESCAPE FROM ALL THE AJIVA AND THE JIVA.
the fundamental issue is that jiva and ajiva are intertwined,
and because of this, the soul is prevented from achieving bliss.
(different from atman and brahman, because jiva and ajiva are
to escape, you need the knowledge and all that stuff which is
the soul must be pure and completely detached from everything that is not soul.
two types of karmaL
PUNYA: auspicious karma
PAAP: band karma
in the end, all forms of karma need to be eliminated/purged.
all karma is ajiva.
jiva and ajiva are eternally entangled
through self restraint we can discipline passions and eventually
just quell them. w/o passions, we will stop the karma flow. the
process of purging is called
While most karma ripens like fruit, they believe that through
ascetic practice, karma can vanish before it is produced.
engaging in restraint and these practices, we can prevent karma
from developing, we can quash the passions, and when the
passions are all gone, there will be no more intertwining of
jiva and ajiva.
YOU WANT TO UNTANGLE THE JIVA FROM THE AJIVA
you must acknowledge that this world is harsh and purposeless
and needs to be pushed aside all together, good and bad.
the threat of assimilation was ever present - they had to forge alliances and secure patronage to survive.
- used political skills, wealth, and working together to make
space in society for their tradition to even exist.
ie. the khastriyas teamed up with the jainas to oust the
brahmins from their claims to power.
despite the split between the svetembaras and digambaras, they
still worked out without working with each other.
despite small numbers, the tradition flourished.
their monasteries had little to plunder though.
because they didn't have a lot of wealth and because they were
very decentralized, their social organization helped them to
survive. they weren't targets liek some of the buddhists would
- the majority of reform movements were initiated by
HOUSEHOLDERS, not theologians or monks like usual. not by the
ascetics, by householders.
- developed around 15 and 17 centuries and centered on temples
- saw a correlation between the temples and gaining money and
such AND laxity among the ascetic renouncers. people are just
going there to not work and hang out. lazy cop outs
temple dwelling was thus condemned.
LONKASHAHA: a Svetambara lay reformer, criticised the temple-
dwelling ascetics saying they were not showing enough RESTR