Class Notes (806,814)
Canada (492,451)
Psychology (1,129)
PSYCO239 (159)

March 5 Notes.docx

9 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Alberta
Angela Brkich

RELIGIOUS STUDIES 101B Lecture Notes March 5 VAJRAYANA continued influences can be found in EAST ASIA introduced into china in the 8th C. enjoyed brief popularity. still practices in Japan today. introd in 9th C. still practiced in TIBET: popular for DALAI LAMA establishment of vajrayana attributed to RINPOCHE, meaning "precious teacher", who is best known for comining dharma and magic practices (which we don't see elsewhere). the indiginous religion of Tibet was BON. scholars argue that this added to Vajrayana. ie vaj claim that bhuddism originated in tazig, a place of great importance to the bon. the most popular one is GELUPA. with regards to the chinese claim that tibet belongs to china. there were old tibetan ties with china and mongolia. that's why there is still conflict there today. don't need to know that but tb tells more about it. popular tibetan bhuddism is known for two reasons: 1. Dalai Lama 2. chinese claim to tibet PRACTICE the buddha outright disproved of rituals conducted by the brahmins, especially the animal sacrfices. he hated it beyond the reason of violence, but because people become dependent on rituals and practices. they should not become a type of burden. despite his warnings, all bhuddist practices developed rituals of their own with distinct differences. - no life cycle rituals! - blessing rituals that center on the chanting of texts were developed. THERAVADA PRACTICES - most common is the BUDDHA-PUJA. placing flowers near the stupa or bodhi tree in a buddhist temple. - they chant worship at the foot of the buddha and proclaiming their dedication to the five precepts: no 1. taking life 2. taking that which is not given 3. sexual misconduct 4. wrong speech 5. intoxicants - merit making rituals designed to produce good karma. an example is ALMSGIVING - they do have death rituals. cremation not rquired but often done. - perform a simple form of meditations called VIPASSANA. requires a certain posture and focused breathing. to focus the mind. MAHAYNA PRACTICES - man of the practices of mahayana focus on bodhisattvas and their ability to share merit. - practices also center on practitioners who take on the bodhisattva vows where they dedicate themselves to the SALVATION of ALL BEINGS. - they dedicate themselves to help others obtain liberation - veneration of the bodhisattvas for assistance - the chantings of pure land mahayana - meditation with the goal of a pure mind known as buddha mind or emptiness - use of KOANS to get those moments of awakening: being beaten, shown a lotus flower, cutting your arm off. VAJRAYANA - use MANDALAS and MANTRAS. best known mantra is "OM MANI PADME HUM." to evoke cosmic harmony. - despite the fact that this is only four words long, there are endless interpretatiosn of this mantra. - expected to evoke a cosmic harmony. same for all interpreations, this end is always the same. - tibetan buddhists use the BARDO THODOL (THE TIBETAN BOOK OF THE DEAD). to help with liberation between death and rebirth. - during transition they would see a light. if they recognize the light as the full on theological buddha. if they notice this, they will obtain liberation. - the search for the DALAI LAMA. this ritual is very complex. interesting movie about this.the search is specific to the tibetan sect, GELUPA. each Dalai Lama is believed to be a manifestation of AVALOKITESHVARA. testing of intellect, personal characteristics, recognition of belongings, state oracle. they can be from anywhere. the current Dalai Lama has been one for a long time. when he dies, the next one is supposed to be the same, so they put out the last one's things and see who recognizes them. EVERYONE'S PRACTICES CULTURAL EXPRESSIONS STUPAS and PAGODAS: after parinirvana, many kings wanted to enshrine the Buddha's body. his body was divided into seven portions to share. urn and cloth were also given relic status. as there were only nine and buddhism spread, more relics were wanted, so disciples and scriptures were used in lieu. - buddha himself said he wants his remains buried in a STUPA, a memorial mound. other words for it: east asia: PAGODA, meanign womb. use of this term correlates with the notion that burial is a forerunner of rebirth. regardless of what one calls it, every temple has one. - the building of a stupa earns an individual merit. it is the purification of mind they achieve while building that provides the merit, not just the act. TEMPLES built out oof the need for monks to not be outside during rainy seasons. over time they became more lavish and the temple aestetic took shape. have grounds with bodhi tree, monastery, refectory, ornamental hall, stupa, library, etc. similarities and differences are in text book, won't be tested on them. first image of buddha created about 500 years after the parinirvana (his death, when his flame was blown out, he exits cycle of samsara). initially they didn't believe he should be depicted. originally they were represented by symbols: footprint, wheel, bodhi tree, lotus. first depictions were made of stone and wood depicting life stuf. first icon created in 1st century by mahayana devotees. postures and hand gestures were popular motifs. STORY ILLUSTRATIOSN great deal of buddhist art illustrates previous lives of the buddha told in the JATAKA COLLECTIONS. temple walls are also often lined with depictions of buddha's life. local distinct varieties. cultures developed their own individual iconographies. INTERACTION AND ADAPTION CHINA: there was a reciprocal relationship betwen buddhist ideas, daoism and folk-culture. the example of the "happy buddha". KOREA: new buddhist groups emerged in korea.
More Less

Related notes for PSYCO239

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.