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March 12 Notes.docx

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Angela Brkich

RELIGIOUS STUDIES 101B Lecture Notes March 12 the review questions are a good way of knowing what the professor thought was most important for us to know. THE FIVE CLASSICS ARE SUPER IMPORTANT TO REMEMBER YIN YANG BINARY THE MAIN CONFUCIAN CONCERNS CONFUCIUS THE CONFUCIAN VIRTUES JUNZI became democratized wtih Confucious, ANYONE can be Junzi, not just the noble born. Junzi means Noble Confucian. XIAO - FILIAL PIETY. love of the family. respect, caring for them, getting married, having children of your own. for whom is this important? this isn't just important for the confucians, it is for EVERYBODY. EXAM REVIEW: KNOW THE FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS. KNOW THE FOUR STAGES OF LIFE FOR HINDUS. we left off last class with the five great relationships THE FIVE GREAT RELATIONSHIPS established to limit the negative consequences of ignoble people. focused on RIGHT ACTION. fulfilling your duties in these relationships. *not hierarchical 1. EMPEROR / MINISTER or RULER / SUBJECT. its expected that the ruler will act like a father and ensure the proper education and maintenance of the people. in return the people will respect him and his rulings 2. FATHER / SON. father expected to raise son moral and well educated, son expected to take care of the father in old age. 3. ELDER BROTHER / YOUNGER BROTHER. this distinction is not just specific to china but japan, korea, and vietnam. it is in the language. elder cares for younger, younger complies with elder. 4. HUSBAND / WIFE. just like the others, this is one of rank. wife is beneath husband and to obey him. in turn, the husband provides. 5. ELDER / YOUNGER. elders are afforded great respect and authority. so age plays a huge role in relationships. 6TH RELATIONSHIP? a lot of debate about this. FRIENDS. for all intensive purposes, there are just the five. 6th can be incorporated into 5th for test. each individual fulfills their responsibilities and as such, society will be much stronger. this concept is known as the RECTIFICATION OF NAMES. +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ Education of women is very different. boys and girls kept separate. girls are in private domain, boys in public. this is never hard and fast in any culture, but as a rule, this is the ideal. MENCIUS & XUNZI - foremost classical philosophers other than confucius MENCIUS (343-289 bce) XUNZI (310-219 BCE) both philosophers during time of upheaval, like confucius, so they are also obsessed with peace and better society. - a key element of difference between the two is how they understood human nature. - MENCIUS is the latinized version of MENG KE, MASTER MENG, or MENGZI. lived in 4th C bce - the book Mencius is a collection of conversations between Mencius and his disciples and rulers. - talks about human nature and the government - develops concept of HEART MIND, four types of which associated with a specific kind of behaviour. COMPASSION, RESPECT, SHAME, RIGHT & WRONG. these each lead to something. people need to use their HEART MIND to determine the right course of action - MENCIUS believed human nature was essentially GOOD. but it had to be guided by rulers who had a responsibiility to help individuals reach their full potential. - the most educated well trained and intelligent people should be leaders. leaders lead by example. try to encourage people to reach these characteristics. - proper human interaction can be based on LOVE. - love should be applied in a hierarchical way. family more than friends, friends more than strangers, and so on. XUNZI xinzi is latinized too book of XUNZI consists of essays that are largely influenced by historical circumstances. different than analects and mencius, because these are essays not conversations. - the vicious wars convinced Xunzi that human nature was EVIL. - turns away from supernatural. says focus on activities in this world. - goodness results from conscious activity we need lots of training and discipline to become good. - places a great deal of importance on RITES adn their proper performance. THE TEXTS THAT HELP INDIVIDUALS DEVELOP CONFUCIUS VALUES confucius stressed the value of the past when things were much more stable. confucius thinks people need to familiarize themselves with the FIVE CLASSICS which governed when things were much better. confucius did not write his own texts, disciples did posthumously. unlike other founding fathers we have considered thus far, it is 'said' that confucius EDITED TEXT. he edits texts that predate him. one more side note: the finalization of the confucian canon was accomplished between 1260-1279 CE! this proves to us that texts develop over time. the five classics are also seen to show a very heavy influence very early on. THE HAN DYNASTY the compilation of the five classics was completed during the Han (202-220 CE). not originally called the five classics, not until the end of this canonization. the compilation of them occured in this time. - the transition from QIN to HAN brought political and intellectual changes. for example: the addition of XIN (TRUSTWORTHINESS), addition of trinity of heaven earth and humans, belief that powers respond to human pleas. during this time too a holistic cosmology is offered with humans place in it articulated. a lot of syncretism with folk traditions. - confucius texts blended with omens, notion of yin and yang, the naturalist school teachings too. - EMPEROR WU instated political / state confucianism in the 1C BCE know this about the HAN dynasty: EMPEROR WU made confucianism the official state policy. 1C BCE the circumstances behind the Five Classic
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